Complete Blood Count

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Overview
Interpretations
FAQ's
Tests Included
Complete Blood Count

Overview of Complete Blood Count

What is Complete Blood Count?

A complete blood count (CBC) test is a group of tests that provide information about blood cells like Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC) and platelets. It is routinely performed to provide an overview of a patient's general health status.

Sample Type

The sample type collected for Complete Blood Count is: Blood

Preparation for Complete Blood Count

  • No special preparation required

Why Get Tested for Complete Blood Count?

  • To monitor your overall health as part of a routine check-up

  • To help detect a variety of disorders including infections, anemia, diseases of the immune system, and blood cancers

  • To monitor an existing blood disorder

  • To monitor treatment that is known to affect blood cells such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy


Understand more about Complete Blood Count

Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma (yellowish coloured liquid). The blood cells include red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes).


Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant blood cells. RBCs contain the hemoglobin which helps in the transport of oxygen to the tissues. RBC count is a measurement of the number of RBCs in a given volume of blood.


Packed Cell Volume (PCV) or Hematocrit (Hct) is a measurement of the blood volume occupied by RBCs. It is expressed in percentage.


White blood cells (WBCs) are key components of the immune system and thus protect the body from various infections and cancers. Total Leucocyte count (TLC) is a measurement of the total number of leukocytes (WBCs) in a given volume of blood.


There are five types of WBCs:

  1. Neutrophils

  2. Basophils

  3. Eosinophils

  4. Lymphocytes

  5. Monocytes


Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC) determines the percentage of different types of WBCs.

Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils are called Granulocytes because of the presence of granules inside these cells.


Absolute count of different types of WBCs is the measurement of their absolute numbers in the given volume of blood.


Platelet count - Platelets (also called thrombocytes) are disc-shaped cell fragments without a nucleus that help in blood clotting. Platelet count is a measurement of the number of platelets in a given volume of blood.


Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is a measurement of the average size of platelets.


Hemoglobin (Hb) -  Hemoglobin (Hb) is a protein found in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues, and to exchange the oxygen for carbon dioxide, and then carry the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and where it is exchanged for oxygen. This is the amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood.


Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) is the average volume of a red blood cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin in the average red cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of red cells.


Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)is a measurement of the variability of red blood cell size


What Results of Complete Blood Count mean?

Interpretations

 

Hematocrit (Hct)


40-52% (Male)



37-46% (Female)



31-43% (Child)


Hemoglobin (Hgb)



13.2-16.2 gm/dL (Male)



12.0-15.2 gm/dL (Female)

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)


4.3-6.2x106/µL (Male)



3.8-5.5x106/µL (Female)



3.8-5.5x106/µL (Infant/Child)


White Blood Cell Count (WBC)



4.1-10.9x103/µL





DLC



Neutrophils

35-80%



Lymphocytes

20-50%


Monocytes

2-12%


Eosinophils

0-7%


Basophils

0-2%




Platelet Count (Plt)


140-450x103/µL







Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)


Standard Deviation (SD)

35-47 fL

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)


82-102 fL (Male)



78-101 fL (Female)


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)                           


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)



27-34 pg



31-35 gm/dL



 Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)                                                             6.0-9.5 fL


The abnormal CBC test results may be interpreted as:

  • Decreased level of hemoglobin is suggestive of anemia while increased levels are seen in polycythemia (a disorder in which your body makes too many red blood cells). Various causes of anemia are iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia, hemolytic anemia

  • High WBC count is associated with infections, inflammatory disorders, leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders while low levels may be seen in aplastic anemia, bone marrow disorders, autoimmune conditions

  • High neutrophil count (neutrophilia) can be seen in acute bacterial infections, inflammation, burns while lower values (neutropenia) may be seen in aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorders, drug reactions or chemotherapy

  • High lymphocyte count (lymphocytosis) may be seen in acute viral infections, tuberculosis, lymphocytic leukemia while lower values (lymphopenia) may be seen in bone marrow damage, aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorders

  • High monocyte count (monocytosis) may be seen in chronic infections like tuberculosis, bacterial endocarditis, collagen vascular disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases while lower values may be seen in bone marrow damage

  • High eosinophil count (eosinophilia) can be seen in asthma, allergies, drug reactions, parasitic infections, while lower levels are rare and medically insignificant

  • High basophil count (basophilia) may be seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) while lower levels are medically insignificant

  • Low platelet counts also called as thrombocytopenia are associated with viral infections like dengue fever, bleeding or platelet disorders

Diet, medications, physical activity level, a women's menstrual cycle, and other considerations can affect the test results.


Patient Concerns about Complete Blood Count

Frequently Asked Questions about Complete Blood Count

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle attached is used to withdraw blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm generally from the inner side of the elbow area. The doctor, nurse or the phlebotomist will tie an elastic band around your arm which will help the blood vessels to swell with blood and hence makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You may feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected is then sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, as this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, rarely, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma (blood collection under the skin) formation, bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
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Tests Included in Complete Blood Count(24 tests)

  • Packed Cell Volume
  • Differential leucocyte Count(includes 6 tests)

    Differential Eosinophil Count

    Differential Neutrophil Count

    Differential Monocyte Count

    Differential Granulocyte Count

    Differential Lymphocyte Count

    Differential Basophil Count

  • Absolute Monocyte Counts
  • Red Blood Cell Count
  • Hemoglobin
  • RDW SD
  • Platelet Count
  • Total Leucocyte Count
  • Red Cell Distribution Width
  • Mean Corpuscular Volume
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
  • Mean Platelet Volume
  • Absolute Leucocyte Count(includes 6 tests)

    Absolute Eosinophil Count

    Absolute Lymphocyte Count

    Absolute Basophil Count

    Absolute Granulocyte Count

    Absolute Monocyte Count

    Absolute Neutrophil Count

Provided By

NABL

CAP

ISO

Thyrocare Technologies Limited is India's first and most advanced Totally Automated Laboratory having its strong presence in more than 2000 cities / towns in India and internationally. Thyrocare is India's first fully automated diagnostic laboratory with a focus on providing quality at affordable costs to laboratories and hospitals in India and other countries. Thyrocare operates with a Centralized Processing Laboratory (CPL) in Mumbai - India for esoteric tests; and Regional Processing Laboratory in major metro cities of India and other parts of Asia. We have focus on strong technologies, strong brands and strong systems that enable all laboratories to give their clients the best of science and technology at an affordable cost. With a belief that 'Quality' is the heart of any intelligent management, Thyrocare became one of the first Indian diagnostic laboratories to obtain internationally renowned quality accreditations like ISO 9001-2000 rating as early as 2001, which is now escalated to ISO 9001:2008; NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories) in 2005 and CAP (College of American Pathologists) certification in 2007.
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