Q. What conditions can cause high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in blood?
High levels of lactate dehydrogenase may occur in blood due to:
· Hemolytic anemia
· Pernicious or megaloblastic anemia
· Infections like mononucleosis, meningitis, etc.
· Damage and death of intestinal or lung tissues
· Acute kidney diseases
· Acute liver diseases
· Muscle injury
· Fractures in bones
· Cancers like testicular cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, etc.
Q. When can false results appear in the Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test?
Falsely elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase may occur in a number of conditions, including:
· Temporarily due to strenuous physical exercise
· Hemolysis of the blood sample due to improper storage and handling
· Increased platelet count
Q. What are lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes?
Lactate dehydrogenase is found in five different forms or isoenzymes named LD-1 to LD-5. These isoenzymes are found in abundance in the different organs of the body as follows:
· LD-1: heart, red blood cells, kidneys, germ cells (testes and ovaries)
· LD-2: heart, red blood cells, kidneys
· LD-3: lungs and other tissues
· LD-4: white blood cells, lymph nodes, muscles, liver
· LD-5: liver, skeletal muscle
If the results of the total Lactate Dehydrogenase Test display elevated levels, tests for the different isoenzymes may be performed to indicate the exact location of the body where tissue damage has taken place.
Q. Why is the Lactate Dehydrogenase Test performed for other body fluids?
The lactate dehydrogenase enzyme is secreted out of the cells not only into the surrounding fluid called the serum, but also in the other body fluids like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lactate Dehydrogenase Test can also be performed on the other body fluids:
· To evaluate the CSF for meningitis and distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis
· To evaluate other body fluids such as the peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, etc. to determine conditions affecting them
· To help determine whether fluid accumulation is due to injury and inflammation, or other reasons such as excess protein in blood
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.