Anti Phospholipid Antibody IgM
What is APLA IgM, aPL IgM?
Antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) IgM are the antibodies directed against phospholipids responsible for blood clotting. This test is to check for the presence of APL that cause abnormal blood clotting and their presence is an indication of an autoimmune disorder called Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). Most commonly monitored APL are Lupus anticoagulants (LA) , anticardiolipin antibodies (ACL) and anti-beta2 glycoprotein. This test is done if a person suffers from inappropriate blood clotting, frequent miscarriages, stroke, or heart attack.
Various complications such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, kidney faliure and lung damage can arise as a result of APS depending on the organ affected by the blood clots.
Why is APLA IgM, aPL IgM done?
The Antiphospholipid antibody IgM test is done:
In case of unexplained prolonged PTT test
In case of recurrent unexplained blood clots
In case of recurrent miscarriages especially in second and third trimesters
As a part of evaluation for antiphospholipid syndrome
To help diagnose or evaluate an autoimmune disorder
What does APLA IgM, aPL IgM Measure?
The antiphospholipid antibody IgM test detects the antibodies that bind to phospholipids in the blood. The antiphospholipid antibodies are a group of immune proteins that are produced by the body mistakenly against itself in an autoimmune response to phospholipids.
Phospholipids are known as structural components of cell membranes. They play an important role in blood clotting. In addition to various coagulation factors, phospholipids are important for the functioning of platelets.
The antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with the process of clotting and thus posing an affected person to an increased risk of developing recurrent inappropriate blood clots in arteries and veins. This can lead to strokes, heart attacks, or miscarriages.
The antiphospholipid antibodies are also associated with thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts). Along with that, these antibodies can pose a risk to recurrent miscarriages, especially in the second and third trimester, premature labor, and pre-eclampsia (a complication of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure).
The antiphospholipid antibodies have been identified in autoimmune disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic sclerosis. They can also be present in infections like HIV, mononucleosis, and rubella; cancers such as solid tumors, leukemias, lymphomas. The use of certain drugs like procainamide, phenothiazines, and oral contraceptives can also develop antiphospholipid antibodies.