- Vitamins & Supplements
- Vitamins A-Z
- Mineral Supplements
- Vitamin B12 & B Complex
- Nutritional Drinks
- Adult Daily Nutrition
- Kids Nutrition (2-15 Yrs)
- Women Nutrition
- Healthy Snacks & Drinks
- Green Tea & Herbal Tea
- Apple Cider Vinegar
- Energy Foods
- Protein Supplements
- Whey Protein
- Amino Acids
- Mass Gainers
- Workout Essential
- Fat Burners
- Omega & Fish Oil
- Fish Oil
- Cod Liver Oil
- Flax Seed Oil
- Immunity Boosters
- Vitamin C
- Herbal Teas
- Antioxidant Supplements
- Ayurvedic Supplements
- Top brands in Healthcare Devices
- Dr. Morepen Devices
- Dr Trust
- BP Monitors
- Oxygen Concentrators & Cans
- IR Thermometers
- Weighing Scales
- Masks (N95, Surgical and more)
- Face Shield
- Surgical Masks
- N95 Masks
- Nebulizers & Vaporizers
- Oximeters & Pedometers
- Vital Signs Monitors & Wearables
- Body Massager
- Diabetes Monitors
- Mobility Equipments
- Exercise Equipments
- Doctor's Corner
- Tapes & Bandages
- Clinical Diagnostic Equipments
- Dressings & Wound Care
- Sexual Wellness
- Lubricants & Massage Gels
- Personal body massagers
- Men Performance Enhancers
- Sexual Health Supplements
- Skin Care
- Body Lotions
- Mosquito Repellents
- Lip Balm
- Acne Care
- Bath Essentials
- Sanitizers & Handwash
- Baby Care
- Baby & Infant Food
- Baby Diapers, wipes & more
- Nursing & Feeding
- Baby Bath Essentials
- Baby Skin Care
- Baby Healthcare
- Baby Oral Health
- Hair Care
- Hair Conditioners
- Hair Growth Supplements
- Hair Oils
- Hair Growth Products
- Elderly Care
- Adult Diapers
- Bone & Joint Health
- Living & Safety Aids
- Orthopaedic Supports
- Women Care
- Feminine Hygiene
- Women Care Supplements
- Mother Care
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
- Stomach Care
- General Digestion/Indigestion
- Loose motion/Diarrhoea
- Heart Care
- Bone, Joint & Muscle Care
- Pain Relief
- Omnigel products
- Eye Care
- Eye Lubricants
- Ear Care
- Hearing Aid Devices
- First Aid
- Liver Care
- Cold & Cough
- Nasal Sprays
- Chest Rubs & Balms
- Cough Syrups
- Fever & Headache
- Mental Wellness
- Kidney Care
- Respiratory Care
- Ayurveda Top Brands
- Sri Sri Tattva
- Kerala Ayurveda
- Jiva Ayurveda
- Popular categories
- Herbal Juice
- Ayurvedic Immunity Boosters
- Explore Popular Herbs
- Herbal Supplements
- Top Health Concerns
- Ayurvedic Respiratory care
- Cough, Cold & Fever
- Sexual Wellness
- Bone, Joint and Muscle Care
- Ayurvedic stomach care
- Diabetes Care.
- Liver Care
- Mind Care
- Cardiac Care
- Homeopathy Top Brands
- SBL Homoeopathy
- Dr Reckeweg
- Dr Willmar Schwabe India
- Adel Pekana
- BJAIN Homeopathy
- Dr Willmar Schwabe Germany
- Dr Bakshi Bakson
- Dr Batra's
- Homeopathy Wellness Combos
- Homeopathy Popular Categories
- Homeopathic Care for Cold & Cough
- Homeopathic Respiratory Care
- Homeopathy Covid Essentials
- Sexual Health
- Hair Care Products
- Skin Care Products
- Children's Health
- Women's Health
- Homeopathy Medicines
- Homeopathic Drops
- Mother Tinctures
- Bio Combinations
- Millesimal LM Potencies
- Bach Flower Remedies
Urinary tract infections (UTIs)Also known as UTI, Bladder Infection
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women. As the name suggests, it is an infection of the urinary tract which includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. It is reported that around 50–60% of women might develop UTIs in their lifetime and around 20–30% of women suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections.
One of the key reasons for UTIs is bacterial growth in the urinary tract which leads to an infection. Several factors can put you at risk of UTI which include holding urine for long durations, poor vaginal hygiene, hormonal problems such as diabetes etc.
Some of the common signs and symptoms include burning sensation during urination, frequent or intense urge to urinate even though little or nothing seems to come out and pain or pressure in the back or lower abdomen and rise in body temperature. One should consult a gynecologist if the symptoms fail to improve in a day or two with home care.
- Adults between 16 and 35 years of age
- Both men and women but common in women
- Urinary Bladder
- Kidney stones
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- Quinolones: Ciprofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin+phenazopyridine, Ofloxacin+flavoxate, Levofloxacin & Ofloxacin
- Cephalosporins: Ceftriaxone
Symptoms Of UTIs
Urinary tract infections usually do not cause any signs and symptoms in its early course. However, there are certain symptoms which every woman needs to be aware of and book an appointment with a gynecologist if the symptoms fail to improve in a day or two with home treatment. Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected which are:
Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis)
The common signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection include:
A strong and persistent urge to urinate
Experiencing a burning sensation while urinating
Appearance of cloudy urine
Feeling of not able to empty your bladder completely
Appearance of blood in the urine
A sudden urge to urinate
Feeling pain when you urinate
Experience lower back pain
Causes Of UTIs
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common bacterial infections. Escherichia coli is the common bacteria that cause UTIs in most patients. Other common causative pathogens include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
It usually occurs when bacteria enters the urinary bladder through the urethra and starts multiplying inside. Though most of the time, the urinary system of our body by design keeps out these bacteria, sometimes it fails. A full-grown infection of the urinary tract manifests when the body fails to deal with the infection.
Some of the common causes of UTIs include:
Holding urine for long hours
Following poor vaginal hygiene, especially during menstruation
Suffering from health conditions such as diabetes, dehydration, etc
Experiencing irregular bowel movement or constipation
Not following proper hygiene practices post sexual activity
Risk Factors For UTIs
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women than in men. This could be attributed to the fact that women have shorter urethras than men. The shortness of the urethra, with its close relationship to the anus, makes it easy for bacteria to ascend in the urinary tract. Other factors that can up the risk of UTI include:
Changes in vaginal pH can trigger bacterial growth
Menopause causes a significant reduction in estrogen secretion which alters vaginal pH
Diabetes is correlated with the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria
Frequent sexual activity and having new sexual partners
Use of spermicides or diaphragm for birth control for contraception may irritate the vagina and urethra and facilitate the entry and colonization of bacteria
Other factors include age of the first UTI, maternal history of UTI and voiding dysfunction
In addition to these common factors, there are few other risk factors for UTI infection in women. These are:
Abnormalities of the urinary tract
Blockage of the urinary tract (due to kidney stones, etc)
Use of a catheter
Any recent surgery of the urinary tract
Diagnosis Of UTIs
As known, in most cases, a urinary tract infection does not cause any symptoms, which makes it difficult to diagnose. However, if you are experiencing any symptoms of UTI, then do consult your gynecologist at the earliest. Your doctor might perform a physical examination and ask clinical history followed by an internal examination to know about your condition. Some of the common tests that can help to check for bacterial infection include:
Urine Routine & Microscopy to check for white blood cells, red blood cells, and bacterial growth
Urine culture test to detect bacteria in culture grown and provide specific treatment
CT Urography or Urogram of urinary system to detect presence of renal stones
USG, MRI or CT scan of abdomen
MRI or CT scan of pelvis to detect any abnormality in urinary system
Cystoscopy in case of recurrent UTI to view urethra and bladder for any suspected abnormality
Prevention Of UTIs
Most UTIs are caused by bacteria that are already in the bladder, so flushing them out is the most important way to prevent an infection. Here are some effective ways by which you can prevent recurrent UTIs:
1 . Drink enough fluids
One of the easiest and effective ways to prevent UTI is by staying well hydrated. Fluid helps move things through the urinary tract, but it also dilutes the urine so bacteria can’t grow. Make sure you drink 1-2 liters of fluids daily.
2 . Don’t hold the urine
The longer urine stays in the bladder, the higher are the chances of bacterial overgrowth since stagnant fluid is an ideal environment for an infection to develop. Do not get into the habit of holding on to it for long, since it will make you prone to infection.
3 . Practice good toilet hygiene
After you’re done, make sure you wipe from front to back to keep from pushing bacteria nearer to your urethra. This is especially important after a bowel movement.
4 . Make sure you empty your bladder after sex
Sexual intercourse can move bacteria from the vagina into the urethra, thereby increasing risk of infection. Urinating after sex flushes out any bacteria that could have migrated to the bladder during intercourse.
5 . Choose contraceptives with caution
If you are prone to UTI, it is best to avoid spermicides and diaphragms. Spermicides not only introduce bacteria into your vagina but they also alter your vaginal pH, which can create an ideal environment for bacterial overgrowth. Diaphragms may interfere with your ability to empty your bladder completely, thereby increasing the risk of infection.
6 . Use female hygiene products carefully
If you get UTI too often, avoid bubble baths, bath oils and perfumed products around genital area. Some doctors suggest switching from tampons to sanitary pads, since tampons may give bacteria more opportunity to enter the body and irritate the urethra.
7 . Change out of workout clothes quickly
If you are prone to UTI it is best to change out of your workout clothes right after you are done. Excessive sweat can increase risk of bacterial multiplication which in turn can migrate into your urethra and lead to UTI.
8. Avoid tight fighting clothes
Avoiding tight-fitting clothing can actually help keep you dry, preventing bacteria from growing in the urinary tract. Wearing cotton underwear will prevent extra moisture from getting trapped around your urethra.
Treatment Of UTIs
Antibiotics are the primary options for the treatment. If you have ever taken antibiotics you would have noticed that you start feeling better on the second day of taking the medications whereas your doctor has prescribed you 5 days worth of pills.
Some medicines used to treat UTI are:
Quinolones like Ciprofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin+Phenazopyridine, Ofloxacin+Flavoxate, Levofloxacin and Ofloxacin
Cephalosporins like Ceftriaxone
Home Care For UTIs
Some of the self care measures for UTI you can follow include:
Use a hot water bottle to ease discomfort and pain.
Drink plenty of water. Aim for 8-12 glasses everyday.
Urinate when you first feel the need. Bacteria can grow when urine stays in the bladder too long.
Wear cotton underwear and loose fitting clothes so that air can circulate and keep the area dry.
Take Vitamin C. It increases the acid in urine so that bacteria cannot grow easily.
Avoid chocolate, citrus, carbonated drinks and caffeine as these can irritate the lining of your bladder and it is easier for bacteria to survive.
Complications Of UTIs
If left untreated, UTI can last for several months. Moreover, there is a high chance that the infection might spread to other parts of the body such as the kidneys, which can lead to kidney infection. It can lead to recurrent infections, especially in the case of women. Also, in rare cases, it can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening infection of the blood which can lead to severe complications.
Alternative Therapies Of UTIs
Home remedies for UTI
Parsley: It acts as a diuretic and flushes your kidneys which in turn flush out the bacteria and speed up the healing process of UTI. Boil about 1-2 cups of water and add roughly 1 cup of fresh parsley or 2 tbsp of dried parsley. Allow it to simmer, strain and drink. In the summer you can refrigerate it and then have it.
Celery seeds: These also act as a diuretic and chewing a handful of them can help increase the production of urine. Once or twice a day you can snack on celery seeds after your meal.
Cucumbers: They have high water content and it is a great way to get that extra fluid through your system when you are having a hard time drinking enough water. Have cucumber juice with a dash of ginger juice or include cucumbers in your salad.
Probiotics: Probiotics are now considered as a major home remedy for fighting UTI causing bacteria. Studies suggest that benign bacterial flora helps to prevent increase of microorganisms that cause illness. Increase consumption of probiotics such as yoghurt, raw cheese, kimchi, kefir in your diet.
Garlic: Enriched with several properties, garlic serves as a rich source of allicin due to which it exhibits antibacterial properties. Daily intake of garlic clove has been found to be beneficial in averting such infections.
Cranberry: Studies show that cranberries can help to inhibit the growth and colonization of bacteria that cause infection, including E.coli , the most common bacteria seen in urinary tract infection.
Here’s more amazing reasons to have cranberries often!
Frequently Asked Questions
- Al-Badr A, Al-Shaikh G. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women: A review. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013;13(3):359-367.
- Rahman SR, Ahmed MF, Begum A. Occurrence of urinary tract infection in adolescent and adult women of shanty town in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2014 Apr;24(2):145-52.
- Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, Conti A, Muzzonigro G. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:333-43.
- Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 May;13(5):269-84.
- Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, Pokka T, Koskela M, Uhari M. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1571.
- Karishetti MS, Shaik HB. Clinicomicrobial assessment of urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Health Sci Biomed Res 2019;12:69-74.
- Pardeshi P. Prevalence of urinary tract infections and current scenario of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria causing UTI. Indian J Microbiol Res. 2018;5(3):334-338.
- Kant S, Lohiya A, Kapil A, Gupta SK. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at a secondary level hospital in Northern India. Indian J Public Health 2017;61:118-23
- McLellan LK, Hunstad DA. Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis and Outlook. Trends Mol Med. 2016;22(11):946-957
- Sabih A, Leslie SW. Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. [Updated 2021 Feb 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Available from:
- Bono MJ, Reygaert WC. Urinary Tract Infection. [Updated 2020 Nov 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:
- Kang CI, Kim J, Park DW, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections. Infect Chemother. 2018;50(1):67-100.
- Tan CW, Chlebicki MP. Urinary tract infections in adults. Singapore Med J. 2016;57(9):485-490.