Test Detail
Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's

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Written by
Dr. Betina Chandolia
BDS, MDS - Oral Pathology and Microbiology
Reviewed by
Dr. Ashish Ranjan
MBBS, MD (Pharmacology)
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Glucose - Postprandial Blood

(PPBG)
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Glucose - Postprandial Blood
You need to provide
Blood
This test is for
Male, Female
Test Preparation
  1. Sample is to be given 2 hours after the start of the meal.

Overview


What is PPBG?

PPBG refers to Postprandial Blood Glucose. PPBG Test is performed to measure glucose levels in the blood after a period of 2 hours from the start of last meal to screen for Prediabetes and Diabetes Types 1 and 2. The word ‘Postprandial’ means after eating a meal.

Why is PPBG done?

·         To screen for high blood sugar in presence of risk factors of Diabetes

·         To monitor treatment efficacy in patients undergoing treatment for Diabetes

·         As a part of a routine preventive health checkup

What does PPBG Measure?

Glucose Postprandial Blood (PPBG) Test measures the glucose levels in the blood after a period of 2 hours from the start of last meal. The PPBG test is usually done along with a Fasting Blood Glucose test.

Glucose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide which is the main source of energy for all the cells of the body, and the only energy source for the nervous system. Carbohydrates consumed in the diet are broken down to their simplest form, glucose which is absorbed by the intestines and transported by the blood to various organs. It is subsequently utilized by cells of these organs to produce energy wherever necessary, and the excess is stored either as glycogen in the liver for short-term storage or in fat tissues as triglycerides for long-term storage. The uptake, utilization, and storage of glucose after it is absorbed in the intestines is facilitated by the hormone insulin secreted by the pancreas. Insulin influences the transport of glucose to the organs requiring it, like the heart, brain, working muscles, etc. It also directs storage of excess glucose. The action of insulin reduces sugar levels in the blood.

After every meal, sugar levels increase in the blood and insulin is secreted as a response to reduce the sugar levels until it becomes normal. If glucose levels fall too low in blood, another pancreatic hormone called glucagon is released. Glucagon directs the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood. The insulin and glucagon hormones create a feedback mechanism to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Imbalance in their activity can cause high or low blood sugar levels in the blood.

This helps to determine whether the body is able to utilize or store glucose efficiently. Excess sugar in the blood indicates it is not being utilized or stored. This is principally caused due to Diabetes which can be of two types Type 1 or Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes is caused when insulin is not produced or produced in very little quantity. Type 2 Diabetes is caused when insulin produced is not utilized effectively by the body (Insulin resistance) and also due to decreased insulin production. In both these cases, blood sugar level rises, while cells are deprived of nutrition.

Interpreting PPBG results


Interpretations

  • Normal: under 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l)

  • Impaired glucose tolerance or Pre-diabetes: between 140 and 200 mg/dl (7.8 and 11.1 mmol/l)

  • Diabetes: equal to or above 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l)

Oral glucose tolerance test is usually recommended when the blood glucose level falls between 140 and 200 mg/dl.


Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about PPBG


Frequently Asked Questions about Glucose - Postprandial Blood

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle is used to withdraw blood from a blood vessel in your arm. The healthcare provider will tie an elastic band around your arm to make the blood vessels swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You will feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected will then be sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. What are the risk factors for Diabetes?
The risk factors for diabetes are: Being obese or overweight with low physical activity, having a blood relative diagnosed with Diabetes, having been diagnosed with hypertension, having low High Density Lipoproteins or high triglyceride levels, being diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, having been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Q. Is there any preparation required before the test?
Inform the doctor about the medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before this test.
Q. Can factors other than hormones and diet affect my blood sugar levels?
Yes, blood sugar levels can be increased by certain medications, during pregnancy, and even temporarily due to stress.
Q. What are the common complications of diabetes?
Diabetes causes an increase in blood sugar levels. Increased sugar levels, if not controlled, can cause severe damage to the muscles and nerves. This may give rise to a number of complications over a period of time. Some common complications of uncontrolled diabetes include: Heart diseases like coronary artery disease, heart attack; Diabetic Retinopathy (damage to the retina) which may cause blindness; Diabetic Neuropathy (damage to the nerves) at various parts of the body; Diabetic Nephropathy (damage to the kidneys) resulting in chronic loss of kidney function; Diabetic foot which can cause foot ulcers that may turn gangrenous. Apart from these, uncontrolled diabetes may also lead to other severe conditions like hearing impairment, a number of skin conditions, and may even lead to death.
Q. What other tests can be prescribed by your doctor in case the result of Blood Glucose PP test is not normal?
Additional tests that may be prescribed to diagnose diabetes in case of abnormal blood glucose test result are: Urine Glucose Test Blood Glucose - Fasting Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test or HbA1c Test Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Q. What is Hyperglycemia and what are its symptoms?
Hyperglycemia refers to a condition where the blood glucose level is above the normal range. This condition may indicate prediabetes or diabetes and may cause significant health problems. Symptoms of Hyperglycemia include: Increased thirst, frequent urge to urinate, weakness, tiredness (fatigue), blurring of vision and slow healing of wound.
Q. What is Hypoglycemia and what are its symptoms?
Hypoglycemia is the condition where the blood sugar levels fall below normal. This is commonly found in case of nutritional deficiency. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia include: Excessive sweating, frequent hunger, shivering or trembling, confusion and blurring of vision.
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