Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Description of Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult onset diabetes) is a disease in which the blood glucose levels in the body stay consistently above normal. Insulin is the hormone which regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is produced in the body by the pancreas. It regulates glucose levels in your blood by numerous mechanisms. In case of diabetes, the body may have a deficiency of insulin or resistance to action of insulin at the tissue level, or both.
Causes and Risk Factors
Common causes and risk factors of Type 2 diabetes are:
1. Genetic factors: You are at an increased risk of suffering from diabetes if either of your parents, grandparents, or siblings has it.
2. Factors present at birth: Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes later in life.
3. Age: As you age, the chances of suffering from diabetes also increases, especially after 45 years.
4. Fat distribution: Increased fat stores in abdominal area, increases your risk of Type 2 diabetes.
5. Obesity: Increased weight is a major risk factor for diabetes.
6. Lack of exercise: Inactivity leads to weight gain and increased fat storage in your body and thus increases the risk of diabetes.
7. Smoking
8. Diet: A low fiber, high fat, and sugary diet can lead to weight gain and eventually, diabetes.
9. Stress
Signs and Symptoms
The common signs and symptoms of diabetes include:
1. Increased frequency and quantity of urination
2. Increased thirst
3. Weight loss 
4. Blurred vision 
5. Fatigue
6. Skin Infections
Investigations include:
1. Blood sugar fasting and post lunch: Blood glucose levels checked on empty stomach, i.e., overnight fasting for about 8 to 12 hours and then 2 hours after lunch. This forms the basic routine check for diabetes in any patient.
2. HbA1C (glycosylated hemoglobin): Is the test that gives you an average estimate of blood glucose levels over the span of last 3 months.
3. Glucose tolerance test: It helps in diagnosing diabetes in patients who have fasting glucose on higher side. This test measures body’s ability to utilize the given amount of glucose when consumed orally.
Other investigations that might be done are urine for protein, complete blood count, urea and electrolytes, lipid profile and liver function test.
There are various drugs available in the market to treat type 2 diabetes. They depend upon the cause of diabetes, severity of the disease, and presence or absence of any other diseases your doctor would prescribe you drugs like oral hypoglycemics or insulin.
Complications and When Should You See a Doctor
You must regularly visit your doctor, follow the treatment as prescribed and get all the investigations done whenever advised, for timely diagnosis of various complications of type 2 diabetes.
1. Cardiovascular (heart) diseases
2. Diabetic nephropathy: Uncontrolled diabetes disrupts the functioning of the kidneys. Severe damage to kidney can result in kidney failure or irreversible kidney damage.
3. Diabetic neuropathy: Persistent high blood glucose levels injure the nerves, especially of the legs and arms. This is termed as diabetic neuropathy. This results in tingling, numbness, burning, or pain beginning from tip of the toes or fingers and slowly spreads upward. This is therefore called ‘socks and gloves’ pattern. Uncontrolled diabetes can ultimately result in loss of different types of sensation, like temperature, pressure, pain, vibration sensation, etc. in the affected limbs.
4. Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetes damages the blood vessels of retina which if not treated in time can result in blindness.
5. Foot damage: Foot damage due to nerve damage and reduced blood supply to the lower limbs is called diabetic foot. It is the result of uncontrolled diabetes and can ultimately lead to amputation of affected toe or foot.
6. Infections
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Last updated on:
07 May 2019 | 01:35 PM (IST)
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Frequently Asked Questions about Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Beer is an alcoholic beverage which is consumed avidly since long worldwide. Beer contains alcohol, though in less quantity (about 5%), which amounts to about 150 calories. A 350 ml bottle of beer contains 13 grams carbohydrates. The excess intake of alcohol reduces the sensitivity of body towards insulin. In the presence of alcohol, the hormone insulin does not perform its activity of breaking down glucose, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels. A persistent rise leads to diabetes. Moreover, alcoholism also causes chronic pancreatitis and the patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis show diabetes as a common adverse effect. Therefore, alcohol/ beer directly as well as indirectly leads to development of diabetes in the long run. A moderate quantity of beer to consume by women of all ages and men under the age of 65 is one drink a day; for men 65 and above, two drinks a day should be the limit.
Yes, eating yogurt can reduce the risk of diabetes. A recent research from Harvard School, Boston suggested that eating yogurt daily reduces the risk of developing diabetes. Yogurt is a pro-biotic, i.e., it has helpful and healthy bacteria, which are good for our intestines and help in digestion. These bacteria also help in the reduction of injury to the intestines (caused by harmful bacteria and faulty diet) and they help in the production of vital hormones which are required for the better digestion of food. Some of these hormones, even help in controlling appetite and help in maintaining body weight. Thus, when yogurt is taken, it helps in maintaining a healthy body weight as well as helps in digestion, in turn preventing diabetes. Apart from that, yogurt is high on calcium and can help fulfill the dietary need of calcium too. It is important to know the amount of yogurt that needs to be taken. Roughly 1–2 serving of roughly 75–100 grams in a day is sufficient to be beneficial (higher amounts have not been shown to be harmful).
A diabetic patient can enjoy sugar cane juice. The most important aspect to consider when choosing a food in diabetes is its glycaemic index. The glycaemic index is a measure of how rapidly the blood sugar levels rise after consuming a particular food. Sugar cane is considered as a healthy drink for diabetic people due to its low glycemic index. i.e. 43 units. It contains natural sugars which are not responsible for worsening the blood sugar levels in patients of diabetes. Rather, it prevents the steep increase in blood glucose levels after consumption, despite the sweet taste and high content of sugar. Studies have reported that drinking of sugarcane juice by a diabetic patient does not significantly alter the blood glucose levels. However, patients suffering from type 2 diabetes cannot consume large quantities of sugarcane juice. Their consumption should be moderate, that too with the prior consultation with a doctor.
Yes, banana is healthy for pre-diabetics and is one of the recommended fruits for them. Apart from carbohydrates (sugar), banana contains dietary fiber, protein, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, manganese, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, folate, and potassium. Banana even has a very a low amount of saturated fats and cholesterol. American Diabetes Association suggests that bananas of various sizes provide a range of carbohydrates, a small banana gives 23 grams of carbohydrates, a medium banana gives 27 grams of carbohydrate, whereas a large banana gives 31 grams of carbohydrate, which is a large quantity of sugar and might be risky for pre-diabetics. Since it also has dietary fiber that holds the sugar in the intestines and prevents it from getting immediately absorbed, it prevents sharp spikes in blood sugar levels, which makes it safe to consume. Being a rich source of dietary fiber, potassium and Vitamin B6 with Vitamin C, bananas are considered to be a good mid-meal fruit for pre-diabetics, but it should be taken in moderate quantities, i.e., 1–2 servings of a medium sized banana per day would be sufficient.
Colas have a very high quantity of carbohydrates (sugars, mostly artificial), and thus, are very high in calorie count. Two liters of cola usually gives around 808 calories, which when taken over a long duration can make you gain weight (tremendously and quickly). Thus, regularly taking cola can rapidly make you obese which is a major risk factor for diabetes. Colas also raise sodium levels, which makes it easier for the sugar to get absorbed and assimilated. Diabetes has several predisposing (causative and contributive) factors, and one of the strongest factors is obesity. Obesity not only worsens an already hampered sugar metabolism, but also dampens cholesterol metabolism. Thus, obesity can lead to the development of diabetes. Although, it is nearly impossible to predict how many days, months, or years will it take to develop diabetes, the eventual development of diabetes is certain . It would be advisable to consume colas as an occasional treat, not as a substitute for water.
Yes, it is true that men with diabetes may suffer from erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is a condition where the person experiences difficulty in attaining or maintaining erection during sex. The normal male sexual erection is the result of a mix of vascular, nervous, hormonal, and psychological responses, which means that it requires healthy blood vessels, intact and functioning nerves, adequate level of male hormones, and a sound mind. When a person has long standing diabetes, his blood vessels start getting damaged, this reduces the blood flow to the corpus cavernosum (a part of penis). Diabetes also damages the nerves (diabetic neuropathy) that help in bringing about excitation (erection). Along with these two, a usual complication, i.e., obesity also plays a negative psycho-physical role in attaining as well as maintaining erection. All the aforementioned factors play an important role in developing erectile dysfunction in a diabetic male. Keeping diabetes under control is a surer way to averting the risk of erectile dysfunction.
In recent years, more precise studies have been done over controlling diabetes with herbs and herbal medicines. The herbs that help are Jamun Seeds: Powder of jamun seeds can be taken with water or buttermilk Fenugreek (methi): methi seeds are taken with water 15-20 minutes before each meal. Methi has soluble fibers that slowdowns the digestion and absorption of glucose Bael Leaves: Fresh juice is taken along with a pinch of pepper Bitter gourd (Karela): Raw as well as cooked can be taken. It reduces blood sugar levels as well as prevents diabetic complications of eyes and nerves Cabbage: It has insulin like effects. It can be taken raw as well as cooked Cinnamon (Dalchini): It helps in improving sugar as well as cholesterol level. Its powder is taken with water Amla: concentrated amla juice along with bitter ground juice is taken. It helps in releasing more insulin Isabgol: It is taken before meals with a glass of water. It has high amount of fibers, thus slowing down digestion and absorption of sugar Ginger: Ginger extracts are taken along with water. It stimulates muscles to take more glucose, thus reduces blood glucose levels Beans: Beans are cooked and taken. Beans have high fiber and dietary carbohydrates that stimulate pancreas to make more insulin Aloe vera: Juice of aloe vera is to be taken once a day. It has multiple effects; reduces blood glucose as well as cholesterol levels. However, these herbs help in controlling blood glucose, but they do not replace medicines completely.
No, intake of honey or any other sweet food products, does not cause diabetes. On the contrary, honey is used as a sweetener, but in moderate quantity, for diabetics. Honey as compared to regular table sugar, has glucose and fructose. It has a lesser glycemic index than sugar. Honey also has a lesser concentration of sugar than table sugar. Certain other micro-nutrients such as calcium, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B (B2, B3, B6 and B9), magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, and potassium are present in minute quantities in honey. These instead have numerous health benefits. Honey also has a good amount of anti-oxidants, which is effective against several diseases. If somebody is diabetic, with poorly controlled diabetes or fairly controlled diabetes, but is over-weight, he should not be taking honey. But if he has well controlled diabetes then honey can be taken as a replacement for table sugar also.
A very common misconception is that eating sugar or sweets causes diabetes. This is not entirely true. Type 1 Diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin producing cells in the pancreas and destroys them. It occurs mostly at a very young age. Type 2 Diabetes is more common and usually occurs in adulthood. In Type 2 Diabetes, the body isn’t able to use insulin in the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin leading to insulin deficiency. Eating sugar or sweets has nothing to do with developing Type 1 Diabetes. Intake of sugary drinks should be limited to help prevent Type 2 diabetes. One of the biggest risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes is being overweight, and a diet high in calories from any source contributes to weight gain. It is the high calorie content and not the sugar that leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. When taking sweets, remember that all sweets are not alike. Some have sugar alone and hence contain lesser calories and are safe to eat. Sweets containing high khoya content, ghee or oil are high in calories and hence more fattening. These sweets are more likely to result into insulin resistance in long term leading to diabetes. Sweets are bad because of calories contained in them. Serving sizes make a huge difference. When you include sweets in your meal, have one chapatti instead of two or have a smaller serving of rice.
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes have decreased immunity due to the negative effect of high blood sugar on the immune system. High blood sugar impairs the overall immunity in many ways. High blood sugar for a prolonged period of time leads to acidosis which impairs the effectiveness of immune system. Chronic high blood sugar levels also impair the flow of blood through blood vessels which leads to nerve damage. This causes the skin to be less responsive to trauma and inflammation. Therefore, impaired sensations may cause the patients with diabetes to ignore minor injuries and bruises till they become infected. This is why skin infections are so common in diabetics. High glucose levels also limit and deregulate neutrophil synthesis, which is essential in the immune system to attack a foreign object. High blood sugar levels also cause other impairments in the immune system such as decreased complement response, leukocyte adherence and bactericidal activity. Bacteria find it easier to grow in the presence of high blood sugar levels and the body finds it difficult to respond to antibiotics.
The exact cause of Diabetic neuropathy is not clear. There are many factors that are known to contribute towards this condition, the most important being high blood sugar levels. Causes include: 1. Reduced blood flow: Diabetes causes reduced blood vessel relaxation leading to impaired flow to nerves 2. Damage to nerve proteins: Depletion of myelin proteins which are important for nerve conduction. Glycosylation of structural nerve proteins leading to decreased nerve conduction 3. Oxidative stress: Increased production of oxygen free radicals producing oxidative stress and damage 4. Accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in nerves. Risk factors include: 1. Poor blood sugar control 2. Alcohol intake 3. High blood pressure 4. Smoking 5. High cholesterol levels 6. Obesity 7. Older age 8. Family history 9. Duration of diabetes Depending on the extent of damage and the function that is impaired due to nerve damage, it is sometimes possible to reverse or slow down the damage by medications and lifestyle changes.
Patients with diabetes often experience excessive thirst due to excessive urination which leads to loss of fluids and hence increased thirst. This happens because in diabetes, when excess sugar accumulates in the blood, kidneys fail to reabsorb the sugar from the glomerular filtrate back to the blood stream. This increases the osmotic pressure of the filtrate, thereby pulling out more fluid from the body. This leads to excessive urination and loss of body fluids and eventually excessive thirst.
Type 1 Diabetes is not an inherited diseases but there is a genetic link . This means that a first-degree relative ( example: sister, brother, son, daughter) of someone with type 1 diabetes has about a 6 in 100 chance of developing type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 Diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin. It is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. There is no known way to prevent it. Giving Insulin injection is the only treatment. But only 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history than type 1. But there are environmental factors as well that determine whether a person will develop type 2 diabetes. Studies conducted on twins show that genetics play a very important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Also having an unhealthy lifestyle like lack of exercise, obesity and eating processed food can predispose a person to diabetes. Studies show that it is possible to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes by eating right, exercising and losing weight.
No. High blood pressure and diabetes are commonly found together in patients. Each is a risk factor for the other. Blood pressure reducing medications do so by acting at various levels in the body. Earlier it was thought that beta blockers and thiazide diuretics, a class of high blood pressure reducing drugs, could lead to diabetes. These thiazide drugs, increased the excretion of water from the body by increasing urine output. This ultimately led to reduction in high blood pressure. However, plenty of studies thereafter have shown that neither beta blockers, nor thiazides increase the risk of diabetes or cause diabetes. However, it must be noted that untreated high blood pressure can increase the risk of diabetes type 2 in the long run. High blood pressure should be controlled well and checked regularly.
Type 2 Diabetes is much more common that Type 1. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have their own set of complications, but with current treatment modalities, patients with either of the two types can live a healthy and fulfilling life. India has the largest number of diabetics in the world. Around 6.2 crore people in India suffer from diabetes. Many patients of diabetes in India are still undiagnosed. Here are some important facts about diabetes that you should know. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type Diabetes is a disease in which the blood glucose levels in the body stay consistently above normal. Insulin is the hormone which regulates blood glucose levels. Type 1 Diabetes: In this type of diabetes body does not produce enough insulin. It is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. There is no known way to prevent it. Giving Insulin injection is the only treatment.But only 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 2 Diabetes: It results from the body’s ineffective use of Insulin. It is usually diagnosed in age group of 35-45. It is the most common form of diabetes. It can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise. Type 2 diabetes is managed by oral medications. Type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms Many cases of type 2 diabetes have no or very mild symptoms. The typical symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, excessive thirst and hunger, extreme fatigue and delayed healing of cuts and other injuries. Type 2 diabetes is preventable Regular moderate physical activity coupled with healthy diet can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Losing even 5-7 % of weight can prevent diabetes. Early detection of diabetes can prevent complications Large numbers of diabetes patients in India are undiagnosed. This may lead to complications of heart, kidney, eyes and nerves. Early detection and control can prevent all these complications.
Yes. Testing blood and urine samples are two ways to look for high blood sugar levels and diagnose diabetes. Apart from testing blood, testing a urine sample is the only way to confirm diabetes. This is done by collecting a fresh sample of first urine passed in the morning. Care should be taken that the sample is collected without touching the skin. Some initial urine should be allowed to pass off before beginning collection. The sample should be collected in a sterile container obtained from the laboratory and sent for analysis immediately. Using the dipstick method and other chemical reagents, the urine is assessed for presence of glucose in it. Presence of glucose in urine is abnormal and indicates diabetes. A blood test of Fasting blood sugar and Postprandial blood sugar should be done to confirm it.
No. Potatoes do not cause diabetes. Diabetes type 1 is an inherited genetic disorder that is marked by lack of production of insulin in the body. This cannot occur by eating or avoiding any food substance. If you have the gene for diabetes type 1, you will manifest the symptoms despite avoiding potatoes, or even sugar. Next, Diabetes type 2 is marked by resistance of the body cells in using naturally produced insulin by the body. This has multiple risk factors including family history of diabetes, being overweight or obese, sedentary lifestyle, etc. So if you have any of these risk factors, your chance of being diagnosed with diabetes type 2 at some point in life is high. Now, nutritionally, 100g potatoes contain 158kcal energy, 2.75g protein, 5.48g fat, 25.55g carbohydrates, 2 g fiber and 0.37g sugars. None of these will produce insulin resistance. However, eating excessive amount of potatoes can lead to obesity in the long run when coupled with lack of activity. Obesity and a sedentary life are both leading risk factors for diabetes type 2. So indirectly, you might land up having diabetes. Even so, potatoes must not be blamed, it’s the lack of activity that needs to be corrected.
In diabetes, usually foods that are rich in sugars and fats should be avoided to prevent spiking of blood sugar levels. In case of obese patients, a weight loss diet is recommended because weight loss naturally reduces blood sugar. However, recent studies suggest that following food items might help in actively reducing blood sugar naturally Avocados Chia seeds Bitter gourd (Karela) Cinnamon (daalchini) Vinegar (Sirka) Olive oil Cherries Blue berries (Nilabadri) Some of the above food items help in reducing weight as well. Most importantly, a balanced diet along with these foods will help in managing blood sugars efficiently. These foods have been thought to help reduce blood sugar, but more research is needed to confirm their benefits.
Diabetes can never be cured per se, but blood sugar levels can be kept under control, naturally without medicines. The best way to do the same is to Reduce weight if you are overweight or obese and maintain ideal weight for your height Eat in moderation (following a balanced diet, which has low sugar, low fat, moderate carbohydrates and high protein Eat small but frequent meals Avoid sugar in any form (sweets, chocolates, sweet fruits, syrups artificial sweeteners etc.) Exercise 45 minutes to 1 hour, every day (this includes walking, skipping, swimming, cycling and aerobics; avoid excessive muscle training) A balanced lifestyle of good diet and exercise helps in managing the sugar levels naturally and keeps it under control, without medicines.
Diabetic patients of long duration (suffering from diabetes for more than 10 years), tend to have damaged nerves in their leg because of persistent high blood sugar levels. The damaged nerves are the reason for sensations in the feet in diabetics i.e. they often don’t realize if the footwear has slipped off while walking, or if they have a splinter sticking in their foot. In such a state of poor sensations, if they get hurt or injured, they won’t be able to feel the pain following the injury. As the injury will go unattended till noticed visually, this injured area might develop into an ulcer and get infected. Due to the high blood sugars in diabetics, the infections and ulcers don’t heal as quickly as they do in non-diabetics and respond slower to treatment too. If this continues, then the infection may spread deeper inside the foot and infect the bone and into the blood stream leading to sepsis. In extreme cases, the non-healing wound might lead to amputation of the infected and gangrene affected limb. Hence, diabetic people are always recommended to keep their legs and feet clean and free from bruises. They should inspect their feet each night before retiring and attend to the smallest of the injuries immediately by visiting a doctor before they worsen.
Diabetes type 2 can’t be cured by any mode of treatment- allopathic or ayurvedic. However, it can be kept under control. Controlling blood sugar levels is the best mode of treatment. It possibly can be done using Ayurvedic treatment. Ayurvedic treatment includes health management with the help of herbs, which are in a dried-powder form or as capsules or extracts. This is accompanied by diet and lifestyle alterations. Diet includes a standard diabetic diet, i.e., avoidance of sugar in any form (sugar, sweets, candies, ice cream, chocolates, etc.); eating small meals regularly; reducing weight to the ideal weight (weight as per height). Adding exercise in the daily routine and exercising for 45 minutes to 1 hour every day is essential to control diabetes, irrespective of the mode of the treatment being followed. In Ayurvedic medicine, after all these changes in diet and lifestyle are carried out, then diabetes can be kept under control without any complications.
Yes. Surgery can lead to high blood sugars even in non-diabetics. As part of evolution, a surgery is identified as a physical stress for the body. The body gears up for a speedy recovery and during this period, our body mobilizes energy i.e. glucose to overcome this stress. Certain hormones too are released to overcome this stress. Amongst many others like cortisol, these hormones include insulin and glucagon, both of which work in combination to maintain our blood sugar levels within the normal range. This increased mobilization of glucose as a ‘stress response’ and increased release of hormones can result in an imbalance of sugar level and thus, increase blood sugars (especially in non-diabetics). This is usually managed without medicines, as glucose levels come down within the normal range in a few hours to days. But, in case of diabetic patients’ insulin needs to be administered for controlling it.
Yes, eating a few large meals each day is bad for blood sugar. Usually, when we eat a meal, our body breaks down the food into its constituent sugars like fructose, glucose, etc and eventually converts them all into usable energy i.e. glucose. Hence, after a meal, glucose levels of blood increase, and this lasts for about 2 hours; during this time insulin is released from pancreas to bring the glucose level down and maintain it within normal range. When we eat a large meal, more amount of glucose is released in blood in the hours following the meal. This requires more amount of insulin to control this surge of glucose and bring it down. If this is repeated again and again (i.e. large meals are taken all day, instead of small meals) the pancreas are over burdened by making more insulin to keep blood sugar under control. Eating small and frequent meals stimulates pancreas to secrete small amounts of insulin to control the moderate spike of glucose that happens after a small meal. The pancreas and insulin can then work efficiently and prevent the blood sugars from shooting too high.
Insulin injections are given to type 2 diabetic patients, when the duration of suffering is longer than 15 years (or in diabetics with uncontrolled blood sugar, longer than 5-10 years). In diabetes, blood glucose levels remain high and to combat this, the pancreas have to produce more and more insulin. In diabetes type 2, the body cells are ‘resistant’ to the circulating insulin in the blood stream and fail to use it to bring the blood sugars under control. Thus, despite of adequate insulin in the body, the person lands up with diabetes. Some diabetes medicines stimulate our body cells and make them sensitive towards insulin so that they utilize more glucose from the blood and help in lowering the blood sugar. When these patients are given insulin injections, their blood’s glucose level remain can be brought back down to within range.
Yes, diabetic patients are at a higher risk of getting strokes. Many studies report that diabetes patients have a higher risk of heart diseases and stroke. It has been seen that a diabetic patient is 2-4 times more likely to face a stroke as compared to a person with normal glucose levels. In cases with normal glucose level, the arteries act as a bypass to overcome the deficiency of oxygen. However, a person with a high glucose level does not respond in the same manner in case of a stroke. It has been observed that diabetic patients contain higher quantity of glucose in blood which deposits in the form of plaques or clots of fats which blocks the blood vessels of the brain, leading to a condition called as atherosclerosis. This results in narrowing the vessels space, thereby, restricting the supply of blood to the brain which causes a stroke.
Yes, diabetes can cause kidney failure. In the long run, diabetes affects kidneys, eyes and nerves, leading to conditions called diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy respectively. Diabetic nephropathy is a condition which is a major cause of kidney failure in diabetics. It has been reported that 1/3 of diabetic patients suffer from diabetic nephropathy. In Type 1 diabetic patients, kidney dysfunctioning is generally observed after 10 years from diagnosis, whereas in Type 2 diabetes, people are generally diagnosed with kidney diseases much earlier. Usually, the waste products released after digestion are small enough to pass the filters present in kidney. However, the big molecules (proteins and red blood cells) do not pass through the filter and stay in the blood. In diabetic patients, the filters of kidney get damaged due to high levels of blood sugar. This results in weakening of filters, followed by loss of proteins in urine (albuminuria). As the filtering ability of kidneys is reduced and progressively worsens, the kidneys eventually fail. This is called as kidney failure and they cannot produce normal quantities of urine. This can only be treated through dialysis or kidney transplant.
Proteins are one of the major energy providers among all macronutrients. Besides, being the building blocks of human body, proteins release energy as they can be broken down into glucose. Unlike carbohydrates, the process of metabolism of proteins into glucose is much slower. Therefore, the release of energy usually takes a few hours after consumption. Thus, the spike in blood sugar levels might occur after a few hours when you are on a high protein diet. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes need to keep a check on their protein intake. Many studies support the association of intake of high protein diet (containing red meat) and development of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, consumption of processed red meat increases the chances of developing diabetes. Therefore, one should limit the consumption of high amounts of protein if he/ she is diabetic.
The best way to self monitor sugar is by using a home blood sugar checking meter. Many electronic devices are available in the market today for this purpose. A self monitoring blood glucose device is a small, portable, durable and reliable machine which helps a diabetic patient to measure and monitor his/ her blood glucose level. These devices can be used by a caregiver or the patient himself. Just a small drop of blood needs to be placed on an electronic strip. This strip is inserted into the glucose meter which then measures the amount of glucose in the sample. A small screen on the meter displays the result. Most devices also display if the reading is higher or lower than the normal range. There are many benefits of using a glucose meter. One of the major benefits is that one can assess the effect of any food item or activity on blood glucose by monitoring the sugar level at appropriate time, in the convenience of home. Moreover, one can check his glucose level anywhere, anytime. The fluctuation in blood glucose levels during the day and night can also be easily detected by glucometers. Lastly, one can keep a detailed daily record of his /her sugar levels and the effect of medications on it.
When a person becomes diabetic, the absence of insulin results in increase of glucose in your blood. Thus, the cells that are starved for energy without the glucose, start burning fats and muscle to get fuel (glucose). This is what leads to uncontrolled weight loss in some diabetics. This often occurs in patients of diabetes type 1. On the other hand, some people with diabetes are known to experience weight gain on becoming diabetic. This especially happens in patients with diabetes type 2. Patients who acquire diabetes type 2, tend to put on wight because of insulin resistance i.e. the body is producing insulin, but the cells are resistant to it. Thus, the excessive glucose from food keeps getting accumulated in the body as fat. This leads to weight gain and then to diabetes. A person with diabetes should have a well balanced, healthy diet and physical activity in addition to medications to control the blood sugar in consultation with their physician.
Fruits are rich source of minerals, fiber and vitamins. They can contribute in reducing the cholesterol and blood glucose levels. The fruits which are rich in fibers are considered best for diabetics as they do not elevate blood sugars too much. The low glycemic index of food fibers slows down the glucose absorption and is good for diabetics. Moreover, they also lower serum cholesterol, resulting in anti- lipid activity. The fruits such as beans, brussel sprouts, oranges, pears, peaches, plums, strawberries, apricots, apples, carrots, sweet potatoes, peas, broccoli and asparagus, etc. are rich in soluble fibers. Chromium is a mineral found in many fruits such as broccoli, orange or grape juice, potatoes, garlic, basil, green beans, apples and bananas, etc. is good for diabetic and hyperlipidemic patients. It is considered beneficial as it helps in decreasing blood sugar and cholesterol levels. It has also been reported that a healthy adult needs about 25-35 micrograms of chromium per day, whereas, a diabetic needs about 200 to 1,000 micrograms per day.
No, eating fruits cannot cause diabetes. Diabetes type 1 is a genetic disorder marked by severe deficiency or absence of insulin production from the pancreas. Eating fruits cannot lead to this form of diabetes. Similarly, diabetes type 2 is marked by resistance of the body to insulin. No natural fruits can produce insulin resistance on consumption. Hence, diabetes type 2 also cannot be induced by eating any fruits. However, there are some fruits which are rich in sugars and should be avoided by people who are already diabetic, as eating these fruits increases blood sugar levels and can result in weight gain. Some of the fruits that should be avoided are banana, custard apple, chikoo, sweet melon, grapes which are known to have very high levels of sugars. Along with these packed fruit juices, sugar or fruit syrups, jams and jellies must be avoided as they increase blood sugar levels. Some fruits that are very useful in diabetes are Jamun, Guava, Star fruit, Pine apple, Papaya, Oranges, water melon and pomegranate. These can be consumed in small proportions of 100-200 grams each day.
Yes. Limb loss is a possible reality as a result of unmanaged diabetes. Foot ulcers are a precursor to amputation in nearly 80% amputations that are without any major trauma. One of the commonest complications of diabetes is diabetic neuropathy, which means loss of sensation, especially of legs (nerves of the feet get damaged due to long standing, uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes). Due to this nerve damage and loss of sensation, a person is unable to feel pain even if he has suffered a cut or wound on his foot. Due to diabetes, wound healing is slower than usual, and this wound then often turns into an ulcer. If not aggressively treated even at this stage, it may get infected and cause pus formation. This infection slowly spreads deeper within the tissues where it damages not only muscles, but may also affect the foot bones. This deep injury is difficult to manage and often leads to death of tissue i.e. gangrene. To prevent spread of infection or ulcers to other body parts, it is preferred to amputate the limb. Hence, a person can lose a limb from diabetes and nearly 15% diabetics experience foot ulcers at some point. Therefore, diabetics are always recommended to keep their legs and feet clean and check them each day.
Diabetes can be prevented by following a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and with lifestyle modifications. Some of the techniques that help to prevent getting Diabetes are as follows: - Reduce weight (if over weight) - Eat right food (follow a balanced diet, which has low carbohydrate, low fat, and high protein) - Eat small but frequent meals - Drink plenty of water, at least 2-3 litres - Consume plenty of fresh, raw fruits and vegetables of all colours - Avoid excessive sugars (sweets, chocolates, sweet fruits, syrups artificial sweeteners, etc.) - Have an adequate sleep of 6-8 hours - Exercise for 45 minutes to 1 hour every day (this includes walking, skipping, swimming, cycling, and aerobics; avoid gym and muscle training) Once diabetes is diagnosed, it can be just kept under control and never be cured. Thus, the old saying holds true prevention is better than cure.
Yes a diabetes type 2 person can donate blood. One can donate blood if he/she meets the following criteria: Well controlled blood sugar levels If you are not receiving insulin Having a good general health state Blood pressure is below 150/100 mmHg Optimum level of hemoglobin Blood banks usually ask to fill up a quick questionnaire to assess the general state of health. If all answers suggest that you are eligible, than you can donate blood. However, there are certain things one must keep in mind before donating blood: Have an adequate meal before donating blood to avoid fainting due to hypoglycemia Drink plenty of fluids Eat iron rich food (like spinach, dates, green leafy vegetables) Avoid caffeine-rich beverages
This statement is very much true; whiskey helps in weight loss and up to a certain level helps in preventing diabetes. It is also known to help in preventing dementia (disease affecting memory), reducing blood cholesterol, preventing cancer (some type of cancer), as well as stimulating immunity. Whiskey has a low amount of cholesterol, fat, sodium, and carbohydrate. It has a relatively large amount of alcohol and ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a strong antioxidant, which is responsible for positive health impacts. Whiskey, when taken in small quantities (30-60ml), acts as a stimulant, which means it increases body’s metabolism and being low in carbohydrates and fats, it actually helps in burning fats and sugars for producing energy. It also helps in regulating insulin and glucose levels; thus, promoting weight loss and preventing diabetes. However, one must be careful and consume it in small quantities (<60 ml/day), because large quantities disturbs the body’s metabolism and can also damage pancreas, which in turn damages insulin production and increases blood glucose levels.
Yes, it is dangerous to skip breakfast, if you are worried of diabetes. It is so because, when you skip breakfast: -You starve for a longer duration, i.e. the entire night plus till you have your next meal -This long standing starvation makes you hungry and in turn you have a heavy lunch -Eating heavy meals increases blood glucose levels sharply -This stimulates pancreas to release more amount of insulin -If this happens repeatedly, pancreas get overburdened for producing more insulin to keep blood sugar under control -This eventually damages the pancreas, which then start producing lesser insulin, and the blood sugar level starts remaining persistently high When you eat breakfast, it keeps your hunger under control during lunch. This makes you eat a smaller meal at lunch, thus setting a cycle of small and frequent meals. These small meals allow pancreas to function optimally and do not overload them to release more insulin. This helps in keeping the glucose-insulin cycle intact and avoiding the risk of getting diabetes.
The answer is NO. Eating too much of sweets, especially when you are hungry does not cause diabetes. When the blood glucose level starts falling, you start feeling hungry, which is the reason why you might crave for sweets because sweets immediately help increase the blood sugar to optimal necessary levels for brain functioning. However, when sweets are taken in excess, the sugar in them is absorbed and carried to the liver, where it is then converted to fats and stored in the body. This leads to weight gain. This increase in weight may make you obese, and therefore more prone to not only diabetes, but also blood pressure, cholesterol, etc. Chances of developing either of them are also governed by lifestyle, family history, and diet. Thus, eating too many sweets will not directly increase your risk for diabetes, but weight gain may eventually lead to diabetes and other diseases, that are related to obesity.
Losing weight is of utmost priority for people with type 2 diabetes. Being obese or overweight makes it more difficult to manage diabetes. Losing weight not only helps in improving energy levels, but also reduces the dose of oral medicines/insulin and reduces chances of developing complications. A good diet plan for weight loss in diabetics comprises of eating smaller and frequent meals, i.e., eating 5 to 6 meals/day and avoid skipping meals or starving for longer duration.
The complications of high blood sugar levels are, 1) Immediate health problems: High blood sugar levels can cause diabetic ketoacidosis. 2) Long-term health problems: If sugar levels remain elevated over a long period of time, they can cause, a) Damage to the smaller blood vessels of eyes and kidneys, causing blindness and kidney failure. b) Damage to larger blood vessels leads to arteriosclerosis and this can cause coronary artery disease or heart attack. c) Damage is caused to nerves and results in diabetic neuropathy, which decreases the impulses across the nerves from various parts of the body to brain and can cause tingling, numbness, and loss of pain sensation.
Modern studies prove that this flavorful spice -- cinnamon, contains bioactive compounds which helps to lower the blood sugar levels. Powdered cinnamon also regulates insulin activity in the body to keep its level under control. Cinnamon can be included in your diet by adding a pinch of powder to your daily meals. You may also consume it by mixing half a teaspoon with warm water, every morning.
For people with diabetes, fruits are a very important part of their meal plan. 1) Pomegranate is rich in antioxidants such as tannins, which increase the sensitivity to insulin. 2) Pomegranate has an average glycemic index (GI) value of 53. People with diabetes are recommended to have fruits with a GI of 55 or less. 3) Low hypoglycemic index allows gradual release of sugars, therefore preventing spikes in the sugar levels. 4) In people with diabetes, pomegranate reduces the insulin resistance, lowers LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), and regulates blood glucose levels. 5) As per a study, pomegranate juice has also been found to reduce the body’s cholesterol absorption and thereby prevents the deposition of plaque in the heart walls. 6) Studies show that fruits that are rich in antioxidants help in preventing complications that are caused by diabetes. Also, pomegranate is rich in iron and helps to keep the hemoglobin levels up. 7) It is recommended to have a small bowl of pomegranate seeds or 3/4 glass of pomegranate juice in a day. It is best to team pomegranate seeds with other fruits and salads for daily consumption.
The best time for dinner, in diabetics varies from person to person depending upon individual’s daily routine. Ideal meal planning suggests that it is better to finish dinner about 2 to 3 hours prior to sleeping. Just before sleeping, it is better to have a fiber rich fruit (like orange, sweet lime, and guava.) or a small snack which has 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrate, fiber and is low in fat and protein. This will prevent liver from releasing extra glucose and assist in managing sugar levels during over night fasting.
Walnuts are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, proteins, and phytonutrients and has been found to improve heart heath by reflecting better vascular reactivity. Studies suggest that consuming about 30 grams of walnuts in a year significantly reduced the fasting insulin levels compared to those who did not consume walnuts.
Beer is an alcoholic beverage which is consumed avidly since long worldwide. Beer contains alcohol, though in less quantity (about 5%), which amounts to about 150 calories. Excess intake of any alcoholic beverage reduces the sensitivity of body towards insulin. In the presence of alcohol, the hormone insulin does not perform its activity of breaking down glucose, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels. A persistent rise can lead to diabetes. Therefore, alcohol/ beer directly as well as indirectly can lead to development of diabetes in the long run. It is best to limit the intake to one drink a day.
By following a regular moderate physical activity coupled with healthy diet, you can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes: 1) Get into the habit of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise 5 days a week. 2) If you are overweight, shed those extra kilos. 3) Losing even 5% to 7 % of weight can prevent diabetes. 4) Opt for whole grains instead of refined foods. 5) Include five portions of fruits and vegetables (each portion is equal to handful) into your daily diet.
Many cases of type 2 diabetes have no or very mild symptoms.The typical symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, excessive thirst and hunger, extreme fatigue, and delayed healing of cuts and other injuries.
Yoga focuses on mindful exercise where a person’s attention is on the body or breathing and eases away worrying or depressing thoughts from the mind. Restorative yoga involves yoga poses and healing through relaxation techniques with conscious breathing and power yoga has been found to benefit for losing weight (a risk factor for diabetics).
The best way to manage hair fall is by keeping your diabetes in control, having foods rich in hair boosting nutrients (omega 3 fatty acids, zinc, and protein) or having dietary supplements as advised by your doctor.
A study was conducted on this and revealed that women who got their first period at the age of 11 were 51% more likely to develop gestational diabetes compared to those who started their menstruation at the age of 13. Although, further studies are required to confirm such association.
Karela, also known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is a unique vegetable as it can be used as medicine as well. It is packed with nutrients that are extremely beneficial for people with diabetes. Karela is rich in fiber, has a low glycemic index and zero cholesterol. Karela is rich in vitamin C, folate, vitamin B complex, potassium, zinc, iron, and phosphorus. All these nutrients are very beneficial for people with diabetes.
Yes, some medicines that are given to control diabetes help in losing body weight. The medicines that help in weight reduction are metformin, exenatide, and liraglutide. These medicines not only help in controlling blood sugars, but also help in achieving ideal BMI (body mass index).
Excessive drinking has been found to significantly affect ones’ health and adversely affects your health if you have diabetes. It can cause unexpected spikes in your sugar levels. It is very important to eat while you drink, to minimize the effects of alcohol on your overall body. When you are partying, make sure you drink in moderation. Avoid creamy and heavy meals while drinking. Instead include snacks.
For the screening and diagnosis purpose, the normal range of HbA1c test is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c level between 5.7% and 6.4%, indicates you are at increased risk of developing diabetes (prediabetic). A level higher than 6.5%, suggests you have diabetes. If you already have diabetes, the goal is to keep the HbA1c level below 7%.
Fruits that should be avoided are banana, custard apple, chikoo, sweet melon, and grapes which are known to have very high levels of sugars.
Rice is not a very healthy option if you have diabetes, but if you really like it, you can have rice with fiber rich foods like beans and vegetables as the fiber will slow down the process of digestion and prevent the sharp rise. Also, remember that moderation is the key. It is best to opt for grains like wheat, jowar, bajra, ragi, oats, as healthy alternatives to rice. They have low gylycemic index and help in regulating blood sugar well.
Carrots are always a preferable choice for any meal plan. There have always been numerous reasons to consider them to be an integral part of one’s diet; from treating one’s vision to improving immune system. One cup serving of carrots has nearly 5 grams of carbohydrates. According to a study, carrots help in prevention of type 2 diabetes among people who have a genetic possibility of the disease.
Red onions are rich in antioxidants apart from giving an attractive color to the salads. They are a good source of fiber, potassium, and folate that are good for regulating the blood sugar level in addition to curing various heart ailments.
You can manage diabetes at work by following the basic rules: 1) Starting your day with a fitness activity 2) Never skip breakfast 3) Always carry snacks to work 4) Keep a glucometer handy 5) Stay hydrated 6) Get moving 7) Party wisely 8) Manage stress better
Yes. Type 2 diabetes does have a strong genetic linkage and tends to run in families. If your parents, grandparents or real siblings have it, there is a higher chance of you being diagnosed with it.
People with diabetes suffer from hair loss due to the following reasons: 1) Physical stress on the body can damage the normal cycle of hair growth. 2) Fluctuating levels of insulin affect other hormones of the body as well, and this affects the hair follicles. 3) Diabetic complications, i.e., arteriosclerosis, damages the blood vessels and makes it difficult for the body to receive all required nutrients. 4) Poor nutrition to hair follicles can lead to hair loss in diabetics. 5) Uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to repeated infections and to combat infections body produces several compounds or factors in the body, that can disrupt hair growth cycle.
Quinoa is a gluten free grain which has the highest protein content and contains all nine essential amino acids. Quinoa contains more calcium than milk and is a good source of iron, manganese, copper, phosphorous, and many other vitamins and minerals. It is also loaded with magnesium making it another ideal preventive grain for type 2 diabetes.
Buckwheat has high amino acid content and delivers 230 mg of potassium and about 6 g of protein per cup. It is also gluten free and you can substitute this for rice in any dish. This grain actually comes from a fruit which makes it an ideal food for diabetics. Research has found that buckwheat can actually lower blood sugar levels and it is high in magnesium, phytonutrients, and dietary fiber -- all important for managing sugar levels.
Smoking has been found to directly increase the risk of several diabetes complications such as, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, eye diseases, nerve damage, and kidney damage. It has also been found to reduce blood flow in the legs/ feet and other body extremities. Irregular blood flow can lead to infections and unwanted ulcers that can only be managed by removal. Talk to your doctor and help yourself quit smoking.
Yes, people with diabetes can have melons only if consumed in the optimum quantity. Fruits form an important part of the diet plan for people with diabetes. Melons are not only a rich source of water, but are also enriched with several vitamins and minerals that are essential for a healthy body. However, it is important to take note that melons contain a natural sugar called fructose. Though this form of the sugar is much safer to consume than the table sugar (one that we usually add in our tea, syrups); however, it is best to consume melons in an adequate quantity.
Kamut is a grain that is similar to wheat in its nutritive properties, but with one major difference, kamut is much less allergenic making it digestible even for someone with gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. It has 20% to 40 % of the protein contained in wheat and is higher in amino acids, magnesium, and potassium making it an ideal food for diabetics.
Cycling has been found to benefit people suffering from and people prone to disease such as diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by doing blood tests like- fasting/random/post lunch blood sugar, Hba1c and urine tests like urine glucose and proteins. High levels of sugar indicate diabetes.
Travel tips that people with diabetes should follow: 1) Carry your updated prescription 2) Carry adequate medications 3) Add glucometer to your medicine kit 4) Pack your healthy snacks along 5) Get moving 6) Stay hydrated 7) Carry comfortable footwear
Flaxseeds packed with fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants have been found to reduce blood sugar levels. The seeds also help to maintain the cholesterol levels, natural rhythm of the heart, and prevent the clogging of the arteries.
People who have diabetes for over 10 years, tend to have damaged nerves in their legs and feet because of persistent high blood sugar levels. The damaged nerves are the reason for diminished sensations in the feet in diabetics. In such a state of poor sensations, if they get hurt or injured, they won’t be able to feel the pain following the injury. As the injury will go unattended till noticed visually, this injured area might develop into an ulcer and get infected. Due to the high blood sugars in diabetics, the infections and ulcers don’t heal as quickly as they do in non-diabetics and respond slower to treatment too. So, people with diabetes are always recommended to keep their legs and feet clean and free from bruises. They should choose comfortable footwear and inspect their feet each night before going to bed. If they suspect any cuts or wounds that are not healing easily, they should consult their doctor immediately.
Diabetics would do well by including the following grains in their diet: Amaranth (rajgira), buckwheat (kuttu), millet (baajra), quinoa, and kamut.
Cayenne pepper is known to increase the body metabolism and helps to burn fat. Since, obesity can be a constant problem with diabetic patients, this space can prove to be helpful. It also helps to reduce inflammation in the body. However, this spice might a little too hot to handle, so use it in moderation. Sprinkle a pinch to your meals to enjoy a spicy and antidiabetic meal.
Some household herbs and spices that you can include in your diet include: 1) Powdered jamun seeds can be taken with water or buttermilk (chaach). 2) Methi (fenugreek) seeds are taken with water 15 to 20 minutes before each meal. Methi has soluble fibers that slowdowns the digestion and absorption of glucose. 3) Bael leaves are squeezed to prepare fresh juice that can be taken along with a pinch of black pepper. 4) Dalchini (cinnamon) powdered form of which is taken with water, helps in improving sugar as well as cholesterol level. 5) Concentrated amla juice taken along with bitter ground juice, helps in releasing more insulin. 6) Bitter gourd (karela) is recommended to be taken every morning.
Reasons why jowar roti is the preferred choice for people with diabetes: 1) The high dietary fiber of sorghum is not only important for digestive, hormonal, and cardiovascular health, but also reduces the glycemic index of sorghum.Since it has a low glycemic index, which is 62 compared to that of whole wheat (72), it takes a longer time for the release of glucose in the blood. This helps in preventing spikes of blood sugar levels in diabetics. 2) Jowar (sorghum) is a rich source of protein, iron, vitamin B, dietary fiber, and antioxidants such as tannins and anthocyanin. These antioxidants help to reduce inflammation and also prevent free radical damage in diabetics. 3) Jowar (sorghum) is gluten-free. It is also a rich source of antioxidants therefore making it a better grain. Few of its varieties have high phenolic content which is beneficial for people with diabetes. 4) Being a rich source of antioxidants, it has been found to ward off several forms of cancer such as colon cancer. 5) Jowar can be easily digested and is well tolerated by the human body. It is rich in starch, as well as protein. It slows down the process of digestion and regulates release of glucose in the blood. 6) Jowar contains antioxidants like tannin and anthocyanin, which help in reducing caloric value of food and also helps to reduce weight. It has also been found to be beneficial in fighting obesity and subsequent worsening of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes can be fatal if not controlled adequately in time as it affects all organs of the body. It can cause complications in the heart, brain, eyes, kidneys and nerves which can then be fatal.
Cumin, also known as jeera, is another great spice which can easily be included in the diet to fight diabetes. Cumin is very effective in managing the blood sugar levels. It also helps you maintain a healthy heart. If you aren’t already consuming cumin, start by using it to temper your dishes. To have the concentrated form, roast a teaspoon of cumin seeds until brown and then grind them to convert into a powder. Have a pinch with a cup of lukewarm water every day to reap its benefits.
Studies show that those who consume one and a half cup of brown rice daily reduce their risk of developing diabetes by 60%. Brown rice helps in stabilizing blood sugar levels.
Almonds are rich in magnesium and research studies have proved that the dietary intake of magnesium has significantly reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. Rich source of mono-saturated fats (the ones found in abundance in olive oil), almonds have been found to be beneficial for heart patients as well.
Limitations of HbA1c test: 1) The test does not reflect the daily ups and downs of glucose. 2) The HbA1c level is not appropriate for the diagnosis of diabetes in following situations: a) In pregnant women and children b) In patients with symptoms of diabetes for less than 2 months c) In patients suspected of having type 1 diabetes d) In patients with anemia, kidney, liver diseases, disorders of hemoglobin synthesis, excessive alcohol intake, and hyper-triglyceridemia. In these situations, it is best to seek the opinion of a diabetologist for further advice.
Fruits that are very useful in diabetes are jamun, guava, star fruit, pineapple, papaya, oranges, watermelon, and pomegranate. These can be consumed in small proportions of 100 g to 200 g each day.
Brown rice is a good source of fiber as well as magnesium which helps in regulating blood sugar levels whereas white rice is devoid of these nutrients and just comprises of starch. Also, the fiber content of brown rice makes you full faster and you tend to eat less amount of rice in general. Replacing white rice with brown rice reduces the risk of diabetes by 16%. Although, eating less rice overall will be more beneficial, replacing rice with other grains is the best alternative as it cuts the risk by 36%.
Spinach is one of the most in demand green vegetable. Regular consumption helps keep away a plethora of diseases and make one fit and healthy. It is also excellent for regulating blood sugar levels.
Sweet potatoes are considered to reduce the blood sugar level by 30% or less.They are rich in carotenoids, orange, and yellow pigments those play a vital role in assisting the body’s mechanism to respond to insulin. They also comprise of a natural plant compound called chlorogenic acid which lowers down insulin resistance.
The patients who are diagnosed with diabetes and even those who do not have the disease can benefit by following these ways for diabetes care: 1) Make healthy food choices 2) Watch your weight 3) Exercise regularly 4) Manage stress better 5) Go for regular health checkups
Once-a-week antidiabetes medications (like Dulaglutide) are available in injectable form. The medicines belong to a group of antidiabetes medications called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. It is a type of hormone that helps to regulate the blood sugar levels.The medicines aim to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
The efficacy of dulaglutide has been proven and the drug is already up for sale in the United States and Europe. The drug has undergone multiple clinical trials and in all those trials, it has shown very good efficacy and safety profile.
Stevia rebaudiana is a little known plant that makes a logical substitute for traditional refined sugar. The whole leaf from stevia is about 30 times sweeter than sugar, but stevia itself does not contain any carbohydrates, so it does not affect blood sugar or insulin levels.
Saxagliptin belongs to the the class of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor drugs, which are used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. Saxagliptin acts by inhibiting the enzyme DPP-4 which prevents the breakdown of substances called as incretins, ultimately increasing the production of insulin that reduces blood glucose level at fasting and after intake of food. It is available as single-ingredient product or in combination with other diabetes medications such as metformin.
The exercising tips diabetics should follow: 1) Carry treatment for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) 2) Choose proper footwear 3) Check blood glucose often 4) Choose exercises wisely 5) Try to walk at least 10,000 steps a day 6) Wear an ID bracelet
Defined as a complementary medicine, homeopathy majorly concentrates on improving the functioning of the pancreas to produce insulin. Homeopathy experts rely on the patient’s history and temperament to devise a constitutional medication. However, it is recommended to use the homeopathic medicines only if prescribed by the homeopath and that too alongside the usual course of medications suggested.
The effects of alcohol on diabetes are: 1) When taken in moderate quantity, it increases blood sugar levels; but if taken in excessive quantity, it can cause rapid drop of blood sugar levels. 2) Alcohol is known to increase acid secretion in the stomach, thus it increases your appetite and results in over-eating, which can affect blood sugar levels. 3) Since alcohol has high amount of calories, it is difficult to lose weight along with alcohol intake. 4) Alcohol interferes with oral medications (oral hypoglycemic drugs) and insulin. 5) When taken in excess, it causes symptoms of narcosis, i.e., slurred speech, flushing of face, increased heart rate; which can be confused for drop in blood sugar levels or hypoglycemia. 6) Alcohol affects liver and increases triglyceride levels of the blood. 7) In some cases, like binge drinking, pancreatitis may occur, which can damage pancreas and its capacity to produce insulin.
Spices which everyone with diabetes should use are: turmeric (haldi), cinnamon (dalchini), cloves (laung), cumin (jeera), and cayenne (mirchi).
Fasting blood sugar test, checks your blood glucose after fasting for at least 8 hours. If the blood glucose comes out to be greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL, then diabetes should be suspected and further evaluation is required.
There are several reasons that could give you inaccurate or higher readings on a glucometer: 1) Unclean hands may give inaccurate results. 2) Unclean meter or touching the sensor with bare hands while testing can give higher readings. 3) All glucometers require optimal temperature to work, if there is difference in temperature between optimal temperature and temperature while operating the device, there will be alteration of the readings. 4) If the blood drop is insufficient to give the results or if too much of blood is used. 5) If you are using different meters every time, as different meters will have different error percentile.
Turmeric is a staple ingredient in every Indian kitchen. It has been used for many years to cure infections, fight diseases, and eradicate skin issues. Turmeric, also popularly known as haldi, has antibacterial properties. It strengthens the immunity and is anti-inflammatory in nature. It contains antioxidants which promote heart health and helps in weight management which is extremely important for diabetics. Turmeric contains curcumin which can help in keeping blood sugar in check. Just cook your food and vegetables with a spoonful of turmeric and reap its benefits.
HbA1c test, measures your average blood glucose for the past 2 to 3 months. Diabetes is suspected if HbA1c is greater than or equal to 6.5.
Elevated blood sugar levels reduce the blood flow and gradually damage the nerves of the extremities such as the feet causing foot complications. In case the injuries in the feet are left unattended, they may adversely affect the feet and cause loss of sensation as well. Wash your feet daily. Do not soak your feet for an extended time span. Dab them well to keep them dry. Moisturize your feet and regularly check them for calluses, blisters, sores, and other injuries.
HbA1c is an important blood test which shows how well your diabetes is being controlled. The HbA1c level is a more reliable indicator of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose levels. It also helps in detecting if you are at increased risk of developing diabetes (prediabetes). It is also used to make adjustments in your diabetes medicines.
Yes, diabetic patients are advised to take B complex tables for better functioning of the body. Ideal recommended dose of B complex consists of 1.5 mg of B1, 25 mg of B2, 75 mg of B6, 2.5 mg of folic acid, 150 mcg of B12, and 300 mcg of biotin. Diabetes is a metabolic disease which can damage the kidneys, stomach, intestines as well as nerves and eyes. This damage leads to deficiency of several component of vitamin B, i.e., B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, and B12 (methycobalamin). Damage to kidneys lead to excretion of vitamin thiamin and riboflavin whereas damage to stomach and intestines lead to poor absorption of pyridoxine, folic acid, and methycobalmin. Gradual damage to nerves lead to increased uptake or use of methycobalmin and folic acid which accelerates these deficiencies and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy begin. Thus, to prevent all these complications as well as to maintain optimal functioning of the body it is important to supplement with vitamin B complex.
No. Type 2 diabetes cannot be completely cured, but can be managed well with oral medications, insulin along with dietary changes and lifestyle modifications.
No. Type 2 diabetes is not a disability. It is a metabolic disorder just like high blood pressure that needs to be managed and kept under check with diet and lifestyle changes along with medicines.
People living with diabetes have to deal with long-term and short complications. Therefore, it is important for you to get regular checkups to detect any complications. Get your HbA1c levels checked at least twice a year. Get your kidney function tests done at least 2 times a year. Visit an eye specialist once a year to detect any signs of eye damage (diabetic retinopathy). Inspect your feet regularly for any signs of numbness, pain or growth that may lead to ulceration and complications.
Yes. In this technique needles are used to treat chronic pain. Acupuncture has been found to be beneficial in relieving pain in diabetics with complications such as neuropathy.
For a person with diabetes, it is best recommended to have roti made of jowar atta (sorghum) compared to a wheat flour chapati.
Pistachios are rich in protein, carbohydrate, and fiber and have been found to regulate the blood sugar levels. Studies suggest that diabetics who consumed pistachios were at a lower risk of diabetes and heart.
The exact cause of nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy) is not clear. There are many factors that are known to contribute towards this condition, the most important being high blood sugar levels. The causes include: 1) Reduced blood flow 2) Damage to nerve proteins 3) Oxidative stress 4) Accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in nerves. Risk factors include poor blood sugar control, alcohol intake, high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol levels, obesity, older age, family history, and duration of diabetes. Depending on the extent of damage and the function that is impaired due to nerve damage, it is sometimes possible to reverse or slow down the damage by medications and lifestyle changes.
There are many benefits of using a glucose meter. One of the major benefits is that one can assess the effect of any food item or activity on blood glucose by monitoring the sugar level at appropriate time, in the convenience of home. Moreover, one can check his/her sugar level anywhere at any time. The fluctuation in blood sugar levels during the day and night can also be easily detected by glucometer. Lastly, one can keep a detailed daily record of his/her sugar levels and the effect of medications on it.
Vegetables that are excellent to maintain blood sugar levels are broccoli, carrots, spinach, garlic, collard greens, red onions, and sweet potatoes.
Garlic seems to be a versatile vegetable which acts as a flavoring agent as well as a medicine. From curing high cholesterol, heart disease to cancers; garlic treats them all. It may not be an exaggeration if one gets to know that garlic can even be effective for diabetes. Raw and cooked garlic helps in regulating blood glucose levels. At least two cloves of garlic everyday are required medicinal doses for diabetics.
Things to keep in mind when checking blood sugar at home: 1) Seek doctor’s advice for choosing a glucometer 2) Seek help to get started 3) Clean the area to be tested 4) Choose the right sample drawing site 5) Check usability of Lancets and Test-Strips 6) Calibrate your glucometer 7) Record your results
High blood sugar level is known as hyperglycermia. The symptoms of high blood sugar include: increased thirst, increased hunger, weight loss, frequent urination, fatigue, dry mouth, blurry vision, dry skin, and drowsiness.
Yes. Type 2 diabetes often causes weight gain. Also, in most patients, weight gain precedes the diagnosis of diabetes. The excessive blood sugar levels lead to weight gain in diabetics.
Yes. Type 2 diabetes might require insulin for controlling blood sugar levels if the levels remain high despite oral anti-diabetes drugs.
Cloves are highly aromatic, loaded with iron and calcium, and added to many Indian dishes to enhance flavor. Cloves are rich in antioxidants and reduce inflammation in the body. Due to these properties, cloves can prove to be useful in the management of diabetes. They can naturally reduce the sugar levels in the body. Since this spice has a very strong flavor, it is best consumed in moderation. Munch on 1 to 2 cloves directly, or add a pinch of clove powder to your tea or dishes.
Yes, vitamin D levels can help to keep the glucose levels under check. Vitamin D is an essential hormone that stimulates virtually each cell of the body and its deficiency affects the glucose metabolism. Patients with low vitamin D levels are more prone to get diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or metabolic syndrome.
Spending too much time on electronic gadgets like television, smartphones, and computers could increase the risk of diabetes in children, reveals a study. The study suggested that an overall increase in the body fat was observed among the children who spent significant number of hours (more than 3 hours) in front of the electronic gadgets. This was linked to increased risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. Although, further studies are required to confirm such association.
Amaranth are tiny blonde seeds having between 14% and 16% protein packed with amino acid lysine and have about 8 grams of fiber per cooked cup. They are also gluten free and contain more calcium than milk. Including amaranth in a diabetic’s diet would control the sugar levels to a large extent.
The options of low glycemic index foods for people with diabetes are chickpeas (kabuli channa), beans, broccoli, whole grain bread, oatmeal, apples, and bitter gourd (karela).
Type 2 diabetes is when the body is unable to effectively use the insulin in the body. It accounts for 95% of the total diabetes cases. It is usually diagnosed in age group of 35 to 45 years. A healthy diet and regular exercise can help prevent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is managed by oral medications.
Foods good for diabetics: 1) Raw vegetables and salads like cucumber, tomatoes, capsicum, and carrots 2) Soups: Spinach, tomato, and mixed vegetable (without cream) 3) Breads: Whole wheat bread or brown bread or multigrain bread 4) Water: Around 3 liters/day 5) Butter milk, curd, and cottage cheese 6) Salads and curds should be taken with every major meal, i.e., lunch and dinner and it should be taken around 15 to 20 minutes before meals.
Nuts and seeds that are 'a must have' for the diabetics: Almonds, walnuts, pistachios, flaxseeds, and pumpkin seeds.
In diabetics, this test should be performed in every 3 to 4 months. If your blood glucose levels are under control, you may get this test done every 6 months.
Random blood sugar test, is a blood test at any time of the day when you have severe diabetes symptoms. Diabetes is diagnosed at blood glucose of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL.
Alternative therapies to fight diabetes: 1) Ayurveda 2) Homeopathy 3) Yoga 4) Acupuncture 5) Biofeedback
Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance diabetes develops as a result of the body cells not being to use the insulin hormone circulating in the blood. Because of this the blood sugar levels remain high continuously leading to symptoms of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes affects the eyes, kidneys, nerves, brain and the heart. It cause damage to the cells of these organs leading to kidney failure, blindness, heart attack, stroke and reduced nerve sensations in legs.
Foods to avoid by a diabetic patient are: a) Deep fried, oily food like sev, bhajias b) Whole milk products like sweets, ice creams, milkshakes, cakes, etc. c) Sugary products like jams, jellies, soft drinks, and sweetened canned fruit juices d) Nuts and oil seeds like coconut, groundnut, etc. e) Ghee, butter, and cheese f) Foods like pasta, pizza, bread, toast, noodles, etc. g) Mutton, red meat, prawns, lobster, and shell fish.
Chicory root extract contains a natural protein adiponectin, that helps to regulate the glucose levels and fatty acid breakdown. Studies suggest that the chicory root extract could help to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes.
Yes. Borderline cases of type 2 diabetes can be reversed with strict dietary changes and lifestyle changes like weight loss and regular exercise.
Foods to limit in quantity by a diabetic patient are: 1) Vegetables: Potato, sweet potato, yam 2) Fruits: Banana, chikoo, custard apple, and grapes 3) Rice should be taken as steamed rice and in limited quantity 4) Oil: 5 to 10 mL per day 5) Dry fruits and almonds : 4 to 5 per day 6) Chicken and fish (to be taken grilled form) 7) Egg: Only white of egg is allowed (maximum 3 per day)
Effective ways that can help diabetics to live a healthy life with the disease: 1) Make healthy food choices 2) Watch your weight 3) Exercise regularly 4) Manage stress better 5) Perform home screening regularly 6) Go for regular health checkups.
Some useful tips that may help you avoid diabetes complications: 1) Quit smoking 2) If you drink, do so in moderation 3) Keep a check on your cholesterol and blood pressure 4) Pay attention to your feet 5) Keep stress at bay 5) Regular physical examinations
Pumpkin seeds are rich in iron and unsaturated fats that have been found to be beneficial for your heart and have been found to improve insulin regulation. Studies suggest that these seeds also help to prevent diabetic complications by decreasing oxidative stress.
Yes. Surgery can lead to high blood sugar levels in nondiabetics. Any surgery acts as a physical stress for the body. The body gears up for a speedy recovery and during this period, our body mobilizes energy, i.e., glucose to overcome this stress. This increased mobilization of glucose as a ‘stress response’ and increased release of hormones can result in an imbalance of sugar level and thus, increase blood sugar (especially in nondiabetics). It is usually managed without medicines, as glucose levels come down within the normal range in a few hours to days. In case of diabetic patients’ insulin needs to be administered for controlling it.
There is enough evidence and research to prove that blood pressure medications( beta-blockers and thiazides) do not increase the risk of diabetes or cause diabetes. However, the fact remains that untreated high blood pressure can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in the long run.
Broccoli is considered to be super effective in eliminating diabetes. It contains a compound called sulforaphane which triggers anti-inflammatory processes that control blood sugar level and prevents cardiovascular damage that is a consequence of diabetes.
Collard greens (or saag) are excellent sources of vitamin C. They help to lower cortisol in the body and reduce inflammation. It also contains a micronutrient called alpha lipoic acid that helps the body in dealing with stress. It also reduces the excess blood sugar level and strengthens the damaged nerves because of diabetic neuropathy.
Eating sugar does not directly mean it will cause diabetes. However, regular consumption of sugar dense foods lead to high insulin levels in the body which contribute to insulin resistance and diabetes. Diabetes and weight gain also put you at increased risk of developing heart related problems and metabolic syndrome.
It is essential for a diabetic patient to take care of his/her feet and take necessary precautions. Some important footcare tips include: 1) Inspect your feet daily before you start your day. Look for cuts, cracks, lesions, blisters, and calluses on your feet. 2) Wash and wipe your feet daily with lukewarm water thereby reducing the chances of infections. Make sure you dry and pat the areas within the toes. 3) While pampering your body with oils/ lotions; do not dampen your feet and invite infections. Apply the lotion only after you have dried your feet. 4) Nails should be carefully trimmed; cut your nails straight across the length and not from the corners. 5) During work hours try to sit upright; change postures to avoid being in one position for long; helps in regulating sugar levels. 6) During long hours travel, move your feet at regular intervals to ensure a steady blood supply to feet. 7) Pick a decent pair of shoes that fits well and protects you from tripping and bruising. Breathing for your feet is as important as is for you. 8) Orthotic footwear can be a good pick for those facing severity, avoid plastic or vinyl based shoes. 9) You can also keep a foot dairy or prepare a calendar with dates earmarked for your footcare regimen.
The medicines are associated with a reduced risk of fluctuating blood sugar levels and promoting weight loss.They are also associated with regulating cholesterol levels, promoting heart health as well as maintaining blood pressure.
Stevia often interferes with the taste of the dish it is being added to. Not everyone likes the way stevia tastes. Some people find it bitter, but others think stevia tastes like menthol. So, you will have to add it gradually till you develop a taste for it. Try it in your morning tea or coffee or sprinkle it over your oatmeal to see if you like the taste. You will have to be careful with the quantity. Use 2 to 3 drops of stevia extract to substitute a teaspoonful of sugar.
Patients should not stop taking their medicine without first talking to their doctor. Patients who have a pre-existing heart or kidney disease should immediately consult their doctor. Patients who do not have any pre-existing heart and kidney problems should also seek their doctor’s opinion regarding the use of this medicine.
Tips that you can use to fight diabetes in a better way. These are: 1) Restrict your calorie intake and saturated fat content. 2) Start your meals with a salad of leafy greens/fresh fruits. 3) While choosing an aata, opt for multigrain aata as it puts lesser burden on the pancreas. 4) Rice and potato can be included in the diet, as long as they are consumed in moderation 5) Avoid arbi (colocasia roots), shalgam (turnip), and chukandar ( beetroot). 6) Always opt for fruit instead of fruit juice. Juices, even the home made ones, take away all the fiber from the fruit and retain just the sugar. 7) Have 200 to 250 g of fruits in a day. Avoid mango, chikoo (sapodilla), grapes, sharifa (custard apple), and bananas. 8) While taking artificial sweeteners, go for ones that have sucralose. Do not take the ones having aspartame as it may increase risk of cancer. 9) Natural sweeteners are a very good and safe option. These include stevia plant and lactulose powder. 10) Do not indulge in sweets as they are composed of simple carbohydrates which are not good for the body. 11) Stay away from fried namkeens. They are loaded with calories. You can opt for roasted namkeens instead. Make sure they are salt free before consuming.
Intake of aloe vera juice can help improve blood glucose levels and may therefore be useful in treating people with diabetes. Have one teaspoonful of its pulp with warm water regularly in morning.
When taken as part of a healthy meal plan, or combined with exercise, sweets and desserts can be eaten by people with diabetes. The rules for taking the sweets remain the same for diabetics and nondiabetics. The key to having sweets is to have a very small portion and save them for special occasions.
Fact: Being overweight is a risk factor for developing this disease, but other risk factors such as family history, ethnicity, and age also play a role. Unfortunately, most people forget about other important risk factors and blame obesity alone for diabetes. This is not the case. Most overweight people never develop type 2 diabetes, and many people with type 2 diabetes are at a normal weight or moderately overweight.
Yes, diabetes patients can enjoy mangoes, provided it’s done in moderation. Mangoes are rich in iron, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B6, potassium, and folic acid. One mango has calories equivalent to those of 1 to 1.5 rotis. Eating one mango does not increase blood sugar too much (it has a glycemic index of only 40 to 60). Avoid having mangoes right after meals. You can replace intermeal snacks with half a mango. It will prevent hike in your blood sugar as well as preserve energy balance. You can eat limited amounts of mango at regular intervals each day. Munch on roasted chana or roasted moong dal with mangoes. They are rich sources of proteins and fibers that also lower the risk of increase in blood sugar after eating mangoes.
One of the reason to feel tired is fluctuating blood sugar levels. Without enough energy to keep the body running smoothly, people with diabetes often notice fatigue as one of the first warning signs
Neem extract and the seed oil allows the body to regulate sugar levels even in the presence of smaller amounts of insulin. Have one tablespoon of juice of neem leaves on an empty stomach daily for good results.
Indian kino tree is a very rich source of pterosupin, pterostilbene, marsupin, and epicatechin which are the most effective blood glucose lowering compounds. Indian kino tree helps prevent long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing fasting blood sugar (FBS) and postprandial blood sugar (PBS). Soak one teaspoon of the powder of vijaysar to one glass water overnight. Next morning filter the liquid and have it on an empty stomach.
Regular moderate physical activity coupled with healthy diet can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Losing even 5% to 7% of weight helps with prevention of diabetes.
Though most children diagnosed with diabetes get type 1 diabetes mellitus, increased obesity, and lifestyle changes have led to a recent epidemic of this form of diabetes in young adults and children under 10.
Jamun has a low glycemic index that helps control the level of blood sugar in the body. It also cures symptoms of diabetes like low-energy and frequent thirst and urination. Jamun contains no sucrose, and has jambolin which prevents starch from converting into sugar within the body. Jamun honey can be used as a sweet substitute for diabetics.
Exercise tips: 1) Wear athletic shoes that are in good shape and are the right type for your activity. 2) Try to exercise at the same time everyday for the same duration. This will help control your blood sugar. 3) Exercise at least three times a week for about 30 to 45 min. 4) If you use insulin, exercise after eating and test your blood sugar before, during and after exercising 5) Do not exercise when your blood sugar is more than 240 mg/dL. 6) Carefully inspect your feet before and after activity for blisters, redness, or other signs of irritation. 7) Stop doing an activity if you feel any pain, shortness of breath, or lightheadedness. 8) Talk to your doctor about any unusual symptoms that you experience.
Bajra is energy producing grain which provides 26.4% of the daily value for magnesium a co-factor for the enzymes involved in insulin secretion and glucose levels. It is said to help decrease the chances for type 2 diabetes, lowers cholesterol levels, and prevents gallstones. It is also high in fiber, phosphorous, and is gluten free.
Methi seeds can also be used to control diabetes, improve glucose tolerance, and lower blood sugar levels due to their hypoglycemic activity. Methi stimulates the secretion of glucose-dependent insulin. Soak two tablespoons of methi seeds in water overnight. Drink the water along with the seeds in the morning on an empty stomach. Follow this remedy for a few months to bring down your glucose level. You can also have two tablespoons of powdered methi seeds daily with milk.
Tulsi leaves are packed with antioxidants and essential oils that produce eugenol, methyl eugenol, and caryophyllene. These substances help to increase sensitivity to insulin, thereby lowering blood sugar. Have two to three tulsi leaves whole or about one tablespoon of its juice on an empty stomach can help lower the blood sugar levels.
It has been proven that people having a diet rich in seeds and nuts are at a lower risk of developing diabetes. For patients of diabetes, sunflower seeds can help regulate the blood sugar levels and prevent sudden spikes. They also prevent the development of insulin resistance.
Gymnema sylvestre works by boosting the activity of enzymes that help cells use glucose by stimulating the production of insulin. Gudmar also suppresses the taste of sweet foods and consequently reduces the desire to eat. Chew four to five fresh leaves of gudmar daily to suppress the urge to consume sweet foods and to decrease appetite.
Choose a glucometer that require a very small amount of sample size. Choose a meter that fits in your purse or briefcase easily. Do not buy the cheapest model in the market. Choose a glucometer that can check glucose levels very quickly(~5 s). Prefer glucometer with large, clear, and easy to read screens. Choose a glucometer that saves the recordings. Choose a glucometer whose test strips are easily and readily available. Some blood glucometer can also download readings on PC, so you can maintain an easy record.
Yes, a person can go into a coma due to low blood sugar level. Sugar levels can become low in diabetic patients as well as in nondiabetics. The cause of low sugar (hypoglycemia) in diabetic patients can be excessive diabetes medication, fasting or starving for longer duration, sudden heavy exercises above the routine or exercising while fasting, and delayed meals.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type. It results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. It is usually diagnosed in the age group of 35 to 45. It can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise. Type 2 diabetes is managed by oral medications and lifestyle modifications.
In many studies involving the usage of black pepper, it was found that its extract showed significant ability to inhibit the end products accumulated in the body which speed up the degeneration caused by diabetes.
Fact: With the advancements in the diabetes care, pregnancy is no longer a reason of undue worry in diabetic women. What is needed is an extra effort and commitment, excellent blood sugar control, and education in all areas of diabetes management.
Glycemic Index is a number which tells us about the effect of food on a person’s blood sugar level.The Glycemic Index has a scale from 0 to 100, where 100 is pure glucose. Low GI foods do not raise blood sugar level to a considerable extent like high GI foods do. So, fruits containing low GI are highly preferable. Roughly, 1. GI value below 50 is considered low. 2. GI value between 50 ‐60 is considered average. 3. GI value above 60 is high. * Here are the GI scores of some of the commonly available fruits: black jamun (25), cherries (20), pear (38), apple (39), orange (40), plum (40), strawberry (41), peach (42), guava (32).
Fact: Physical exercise is important for everyone’s health, more so for people with diabetes. Regular exercise helps lower blood sugar levels and keeps them in the target range. Being physically active reduces the risk of common diabetes complications, such as heart disease and nerve damage.
Yes, Bhindi has been found helpful in lowering blood sugar. Cut off the ends of a few ladies finger (okras/bhindi) and prick them in several places using a fork. Soak the okras in a glass of water overnight. In the morning, discard the okras and drink the water on an empty stomach. Do this daily for several weeks.
At the time of diagnosis, mostly the blood sugar is controlled adequately by diet, exercise, and/or oral medications that help the body absorb glucose. However, with time the pancreas may stop producing enough insulin. At this point, insulin injections are added to the treatment plan. This is the natural progression of the disease.