Description of Endometriosis

Description of Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a medical condition wherein there is an abnormal growth of endometrial cells outside the uterus. These cells are shed monthly during menstrual period. These cells become endometriosis implants when they attach themselves to tissue found outside of the uterus. When the tissue grows somewhere else like on the ovaries, bladder, or behind the uterus, endometriosis occurs.
Causes and Risk Factors of Endometriosis
There is no specified cause of endometriosis. Some researchers say endometriosis can occur when the endometrial tissue grows in unusual locations due to the menstrual flow into the fallopian tubes and the pelvic.
Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis
Common symptoms are:
1. Pelvic pain
2. Lower abdominal pain
3. Diarrhea
4. Constipation
5. Lower back pain
6. Irregular, heavy, or abnormal menstrual bleeding
7. Blood in the urine
8. Some rare symptoms are chest pain, coughing with blood (lung endometriosis), headache, and seizures (brain endometriosis).
Investigations include:
1. Laparoscopy
2. Imaging tests such as MRI scan can be a useful noninvasive tool especially for subperitoneal deposits.
3. Screening and diagnostic test such as CA-125
4. In acute cases, complete blood count (CBC), urinalysis, cervical swabs, and ßhCG can help rule out other differential diagnoses.
5. MRI and CT scanning are only useful in cases of advanced disease with endometrial cyst formation or severe distortion.
6. Intravenous pyelography and colonic studies are indicated only if the clinical presentation suggests extra-genital involvement of these organ systems.
Treatment of Endometriosis
1. Medications:
a) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like naproxen sodium or ibuprofen
b) Other medications may include oral contraceptive pills, progestins, and GnRH analogs
2. Surgery
Content Details
Last updated on:
31 Jan 2018 | 11:51 AM (IST)
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