Kalonji

Kalonji
Kalonji or Kalajeera is also known as Upakunci in Ayurveda. It has a characteristic taste and flavour and is used in various cuisines. Kalonji seed and its oil has various therapeutic properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and gastroprotective. These curative properties help manage asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure, cough, jaundice, fever, piles, skin diseases, flatulence, diarrhea and dysentery. Avoid consumption of Kalonji in larger quantity as it might upset your stomach[2][3].

What are the synonyms of Kalonji?

Nigella sativa, Sthulajirala, Upakunci, Susavi, Mota Kalajira, Kalajira, Small Fennel, Nigella Seed, Kalonji jeeru, Kalounji , Mangaraila, Karijirige, Karinjirakam, Kalonji jire, Kalejire, Kalvanji, Karunjeerakam, Karunjiragam, Peddajilakarra, Kalongi[1]

What is the source of Kalonji?

Plant Based

Benefits of Kalonji

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Asthma?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has antiasthmatic and spasmolytic properties. It causes relaxation of the airways of asthmatic individuals and reduces inflammation thereby increasing respiration. Kalonji may reduce asthmatic attacks and wheezing (whistling sound caused due to difficulty in breathing) due to asthma[4-8].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji helps to reduce the symptoms of asthma. According to Ayurveda, the main doshas involved in asthma are Vata and Kapha. The vitiated ‘Vata’ combines with deranged ‘Kapha dosha’ in the lungs causing obstruction in the respiratory passage. This results in difficulty in breathing. This condition is known as Swas Roga or Asthma. Taking Kalonji helps to calm Vata-Kapha and remove excess mucus from the lungs. This gives relief from the symptoms of asthma.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with honey twice a day.
3. Continue for atleast 1-2 months to manage the symptoms of asthma.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Diabetes?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has potent antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties. It increases proliferation of insulin producing cells in the pancreas which causes an increase in blood insulin level. This also leads to a decrease in blood glucose level and thus Kalonji may be useful in managing diabetes[4][9][10].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Diabetes also known as Madhumeha is due to an aggravation of Vata and impaired digestion. Impaired digestion leads to an accumulation of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) in the pancreatic cells and impairs the function of insulin. Kalonji calms an aggravated Vata and improves digestive fire. This reduces Ama because of its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. It improves metabolism and maintains the insulin level. This helps maintain your blood glucose level.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji.
2. Take it with mild hot water twice a day.
3. Continue for 1-2 months to manage normal blood sugar level.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for High blood pressure?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has antioxidant, cardiac depressant, diuretic and calcium channel blocking properties. All of these properties of Kalonji are useful in managing high blood pressure[4][11-13].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Hay fever?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji contains certain compounds that have anti-histaminic effect due to which it has anti-allergic property. Kalonji suppresses the release of histamines which may be useful in managing allergies. It reduces nasal congestion, itchy nose, sneezing attacks, runny nose and other symptoms of Hay fever[4][16-18].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
perennial. Ayurveda defines allergic rhinitis as Vata-Kaphaj Pratishaya. It is the result of impaired digestion and imbalance of Vata and Kapha. Taking Kalonji helps fight the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. This is due to its Kapha- Vata balancing property.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with honey twice a day to control the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Indigestion?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may be useful in managing indigestion. It contains certain compounds that have, digestive, stomachic and carminative properties[4][21][22].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji helps to manage indigestion. According to Ayurveda, indigestion means the state of an incomplete process of digestion. The main reason for indigestion is aggravated Kapha that causes Agnimandya (weak digestive fire). Taking Kalonji helps to improve Agni (digestive) due to its Deepan (appetizer) property and helps to digest food because of its Pachan nature.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with warm milk once or twice a day to manage indigestion.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Epilepsy/Seizures?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has antioxidant, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic properties. Kalonji oil protects against the oxidative damage that may cause seizure and reduce the induction of seizures as well. It may also be useful in controlling the harmful effects of antiepileptic drugs[4][23][24].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for High cholesterol?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may be useful in managing high cholesterol. It lowers the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides while increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)[4][25][26].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
High cholesterol is due to an imbalance of Pachak Agni (digestive fire). Impaired digestion at the tissue level produces excess waste products or Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion). This causes accumulation of bad cholesterol and blockage in the blood vessels. Kalonj and its oil helps to improve Agni (digestive fire) and reduce Ama. This is due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with warm milk once or twice a day to maintain normal cholesterol level.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Rheumatoid arthritis?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has potent anti-inflammatory and immunological properties. It inhibits the release of inflammatory chemicals and reduces joint swelling and stiffness, thus managing Rheumatoid arthritis[4][29][30].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known as Aamavata in Ayurveda. Amavata is a disease in which vitiation of Vata dosha and accumulation of Ama takes place in the joints. Amavata starts with a weak digestive fire which leads to accumulation of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion). This Ama is carried to different locations through Vata but instead of being absorbed, it gets accumulated in the joints. Kalonji helps to correct digestive fire and reduce Aam due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. It has also Vata balancing nature which gives relief from the symptoms of Rheumatoid arthritis like pain and swelling in the joints.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with mild hot water twice a day to control Rheumatoid arthritis.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Tonsilitis?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has parasiticidal and anthelmintic properties. It may be useful in managing tonsillitis by inhibiting tonsil-causing bacteria (Streptococcal bacteria). Kalonji may also be useful in managing fever due to Tonsillitis due to its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties[4][31][32].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Contraception?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has potent antifertility property due to which it may be useful for contraception[4][21][33].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Immunity booster?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be useful in stimulating the immune system to counter any foreign microorganisms[4][34].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Inflammation of the airways (bronchitis)?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji contains a bioactive compound that may play a role in managing bronchitis. It reduces inflammation and release of inflammatory chemicals that may improve respiration[4][21][35][36].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji is useful if you have cough related problems like bronchitis. In Ayurveda, this disease is known as Kasroga and is caused by poor digestion. Poor diet and incomplete elimination of wastes lead to the formation of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) in the form of mucus in the lungs. This leads to bronchitis. Taking Kalonji helps to improve digestion and reduce Ama. This is due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. It also reduces excess mucus accumulation because of its Ushna (hot) nature.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with honey twice a day to control the symptoms of bronchitis.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Cancer?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has certain bioactive compounds that possess anticancer and anti-inflammatory property. Kalonji seeds and oil may be responsible for killing cancer cells, inhibiting cancer cells. It may also be useful in protecting the cells against cancer-causing agents such as radiations[4][37][38][48].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Cough?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji contains certain compounds that have antitussive (cough suppressant) and bronchodilatory properties. Kalonji also has anti-inflammatory property. Due to these properties, Kalonji act as a relaxant and also suppresses the cough centre in the central nervous system[4][39][40].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cough is commonly known as Kapha disorder in Ayurveda which is caused by the accumulation of mucus in the respiratory tract. Kalonji helps to reduce cough and remove accumulated mucus from the lungs due to its Kapha balancing property.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon of Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with honey twice a day to manage cough.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Headache?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be useful in managing headache[4][35][42].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Menstrual pain?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be useful in managing menstrual pain[4][45].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Menstrual problems like menstrual pain or dysmenorrhea is the pain or cramps during or before a menstrual period. In Ayurveda, this condition is known as Kasht-aartava. According to Ayurveda, Aartava or Menstruation is controlled and governed by Vata dosha. So it is important that in a woman, Vata should be under control to manage dysmenorrhea. Kalonji has the property of balancing Vata so it is good to control dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain.
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. With honey twice a day.
3. To get rid of menstrual pain

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Male infertility?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji contains a number of essential amino acids, vitamin A, B and C and minerals that may be responsible for promoting male fertility. It increases the male hormone testosterone and also enhances the process of sperm production. Kalonji may thus be useful in managing male infertility by increasing the production and motility of sperms[4][14][15].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Tips:
1. Take 1/4- 1/2 teaspoon Kalonji powder.
2. Have it with warm milk once or twice a day.
3. Continue for atleast 1 month for improved sperm function.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Disease of thyroid gland?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has been used as a herbal medicine to manage autoimmune thyroiditis (also known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). It plays a role in lowering the production of thyroid hormone as well as the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood. This effect of Kalonji may be useful in managing autoimmune thyroiditis[4][19][20].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Metabolic syndrome?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may be useful in managing Metabolic syndrome. Kalonji and its oil may be beneficial in lowering blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol[4][27][28].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Opioid withdrawal?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has anti-bacterial, antiallergic, spasmolytic and antinociceptive effects. It also contains certain amino acids that are nutritious and beneficial to an opioid addict. Thus, Kalonji may be useful in managing opioid withdrawal. Moreover, it may also be useful in managing weakness and infections that occur due to opiod addiction[4][46].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Increased breast milk production?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji has galactagogue property, i.e., it may be useful in stimulating the production of breast-milk. It increases the production of hormone (prolactin) that induces milk secretion[4][43][44].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Influenza (flu)?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be useful in managing flu[4][45].

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Nasal congestion (blocked nose)?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be used in managing nasal congestion[4][15][17].

How effective is Kalonji?

Likely effective
Asthma, Diabetes, High blood pressure, Male infertility
Insufficient evidence
Cancer, Contraception, Cough, Disease of thyroid gland, Epilepsy/Seizures, Hay fever, Headache, High cholesterol, Immunity booster, Increased breast milk production, Indigestion, Inflammation of the airways (bronchitis), Influenza (flu), Menstrual pain, Metabolic syndrome, Nasal congestion (blocked nose), Opioid withdrawal, Rheumatoid arthritis, Tonsilitis

Precautions when using Kalonji

Advice from Experts
scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may increase the risk of bleeding. So, it is generally advised to consult your doctor while taking Kalonji with anticoagulants[4].
Breastfeeding
scientific
Scientific View
It is safe to take Kalonji in food amounts. However, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Kalonji supplements during breastfeeding.
Patients with diabetes
scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may lower the blood sugar level. So, it is generally advised to monitor your blood sugar while taking Kalonji with antidiabetic drugs[4].
Patients with heart disease
Important
scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji may lower the blood pressure. So, it is generally advised to monitor your blood pressure while taking Kalonji with antihypertensive drugs[4].
Pregnancy
scientific
Scientific View
It is safe to take Kalonji in food amounts. However, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Kalonji supplements during pregnancy.
Side Effects
Important
scientific
Scientific View
1. Allergy
2. Stomach upset
3. Constipation
4. Vomiting
5. Constipation
6. Seizures[4].

Recommended Dosage of Kalonji

  • Kalonji Powder - ¼ - ½ teaspoon twice a day.
  • Kalonji Capsule - 1-2 capsules twice a day.
  • Kalonji Oil - ¼-½ teaspoon once or twice a day.

How to use Kalonji

1. Kalonji Powder
a. Take ¼ - ½ teaspoon of Kalonji churna.
b. Swallow it with water or honey after taking lunch and dinner.

2. Kalonji Capsule
a. Take 1-2 capsule of Kalonji capsule.
b. Swallow it with water after taking lunch and dinner.

3. Kalonji Oil
a. Take ¼ - ½ teaspoon of Kalonji oil.
b. Take it with warm water once a day after taking food.
c. Check the label of Kalonji oil bottle before using internally.

Benefits of Kalonji

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Eczema?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be used in managing eczema[4][22][35].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji oil helps to control eczema when applied on the affected area. Eczema is a skin condition that makes the skin rough, blistered, inflamed, itchy and might even bleed. Applying Kalonji oil reduces the inflammation and improves quick healing due to its Ropan (healing) property.
Tips:
1. Take 2-5 drops of Kalonji oil or as per your requirement.
2. Mix with coconut oil.
3. Apply to the affected area once a day to manage the symptoms of eczema.

What are the benefits of Kalonji for Pain in breasts?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji contains certain compounds that have analgesic property. Topical application of Kalonji oil may be useful in managing breast pain (mastalgia)[4][50][51].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji oil helps to manage breast pain. According to Ayurveda, an imbalance of the Vata dosha is the main cause for pain in any area of the body. Applying Kalonji oil might help reduce the intensity of pain because of its Vata balancing property.
Tips:
1. Take 2-5 drops of Kalonji oil or as per your requirement.
2. Mix with coconut oil.
3. Apply to the affected area once a day to manage breast pain.

How effective is Kalonji?

Likely effective
Pain in breasts
Insufficient evidence
Eczema

Precautions when using Kalonji

Allergy
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji paste or oil should be used with rose water or coconut oil when applied on the skin due to its Ushna (hot)potency.

Recommended Dosage of Kalonji

  • Kalonji Oil - 2-5 drops or as per your requirement.

How to use Kalonji

1. Kalonji Paste
a. Take ½ - 1 teaspoon paste of Kalonji.
b. Add rose water to it.
c. Apply on the affected area once a day or thrice a week.

2. Kalonji Oil
a. Take 2-5 drops of Kalonji oil or as per your requirement.
b. Mix with coconut oil to it.
c. Apply on the affected area once a day or thrice a week.

Frequently asked questions

Q. Is Kalonji and black seed the same?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes Black seed and Kalonji are the same. Kalonji is known as Black seed in English.

Q. Can I eat Kalonji during pregnancy?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. However Kalonji can slow down or stop the uterus from contracting[4].

Q. What is Kalonji oil?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji oil is extracted from its seeds and is used in the preparation of many medicines.It has been used as a cure for a number of diseases and disorders.

Q. Can Kalonji seeds be eaten raw?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, they can be eaten raw. If you find the taste unpalatable, mix them with honey or water. It is also used as an ingredient in some dishes and cuisines.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Yes, Kalonji seeds can be eaten raw as it helps to maintain better digestion. This is due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. You can also add honey to reduce the Tikta (bitter) taste of Kalonji.

Q. Does Kalonji cause constipation?

scientific
Scientific View
No, Kalonji does not cause constipation. Studies suggest that Kalonji has potent gastroprotective activities. This is due to the presence of some specific constituents in it. It helps protect our stomach from ulcer, regulate the bowel movements and has antioxidant and anti-secretory activities[1].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji helps control constipation by reducing the level of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion). Eating Kalonji helps maintain intestine motility due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties.

Q. Can Kalonji trigger a migraine?

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji might trigger a migraine if taken in excess amount. This is because Kalonji has Ushna (hot) potency. It can increase Pitta dosha in the body which triggers migraine. So it is advisable to use Kalonji in less amount if you have a history of migraine.

Q. Is Kalonji good for heart?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Kalonji may be good for the heart. Kalonji contains certain phytochemicals that have potent cardio-protective effect. It may be useful in lowering elevated heart rate as well as blood pressure. Kalonji may also be useful in protecting the heart muscles against oxidative damage due to its antioxidant property[47][48].

Q. Is Kalonji good for hypothyroid?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be useful in managing hypothyroid. Kalonji oil has antioxidant activity due to which it may protect the thyroid follicles against oxidative damage[49].

Q. Is Kalonji good for hair?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Kalonji may be good for hair. Kalonji seed and oil have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It strengthens the hair follicles and retards hair fall as well as promotes hair growth. It also provides lustre to hair and manages damaged hair[44][52].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji is useful in managing hair problems when used directly in the form of paste or oil on the scalp. It helps to control hair fall and promote hair growth. This is because hair fall is mainly due to an aggravated Vata dosha in the body. Kalonji acts on hair fall by balancing Vata dosha. It also promotes hair growth and removes excessive dryness.

Q. Is Kalonji good for skin problems?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Kalonji may be good for the skin. It has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Kalonji may be useful in managing eczema, boil, wrinkles and skin eruptions[22][44][52].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Kalonji oil helps to fight acne and reduce blemishes. This is due to its Ropan (healing) nature. It effectively reduces acne inflammation as well as acne scar.

Q. Is Kalonji oil good for baldness?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Kalonji may be useful in managing baldness. Kalonji seed and oil have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It strengthens the hair follicles and retards hair fall as well as promotes hair growth[44][52].

Q. Is Kalonji oil good for eyes?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji oil may be used in managing eye problems[14][53].

Q. Is Kalonji oil good for joint pain?

scientific
Scientific View
Kalonji oil helps to reduce bone and joint pain when applied on the affected area. According to Ayurveda, the bones and joints are considered a site of Vata in the body. Pain in the joints is mainly due to Vata imbalance. Applying Kalonji oil helps to reduce joint pain due to its Vata balancing property.

Q. Is Kalonji oil good for psoriasis?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Kalonji may be useful in managing psoriasis. Kalonji seeds have antipsoriatic and anti-inflammatory properties. It helps to manage swelling and itching associated with psoriasis[52][54].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, autoimmune disease that causes dry, red, scaly patches and flakes on the skin. Kalonji oil is useful in psoriasis as it reduces dryness and helps in quick healing of scaly patches. This is due to its Snigdha (oily) and Ropan (healing) properties.

Q. Is Kalonji oil good for back pain?

scientific
Scientific View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, Kalonji may be used in managing back pain[35][55].

References

  1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India.Part 1 Volume 1.
  2. Ahmad A, Husain A, Mujeeb M.A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 May; 3(5): 337–352.
  3. Rajsekhar S, Kuldeep B.PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF NIGELLA SATIVA - A REVIEW.IRJP.2011;2(11):36-39.
  4. WebMD.black-seed: Uses, Side effects, Doses, Interactions [Internet].Atlanta [last updated in 2016].
  5. Gilani AH, Aziz N,Khurram IM et al.Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses.The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association.2001;51(3):115-120.
  6. Ali BH, Blunden G.Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa.Phytotherapy Research.2003;17(4):299-305.
  7. Boskabady MH, Mohsenpoor N, Takaloo L.Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients.Phytomedicine.2010;17(10):707-713.
  8. Boskabady MH, Javan H, Sajady M et al.The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients.Fundam Clin Pharmacol.2007;21(5):559-566.
  9. Kanter M, Meral I, Yener Z et al.Partial regeneration/proliferation of the β-cells in the islets of langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Tohoku J. Exp. Med.2003;201:213-219.
  10. Kanter M, Coskun O, Korkmaz A et al.Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and β-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Anat Rec - Part A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol.2004;279A(1):685-691.
  11. Leong XF, Rais Mustafa M, Jaarin K.Nigella sativa and its protective role in oxidative stress and hypertension.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2013;Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine;2013:1-9.
  12. Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Lacaille-Dubois MA et al.Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.Therapie.2000;55(3):379-382.
  13. Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF.Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension.Fundam Clin Pharmacol.2008;22(4):447-452.
  14. Al-Sa’aidi J.Effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility in male rats.Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2009;23(supplement II):123-128.
  15. Mukhallad AM, Mohamad M, Hatham D.Effects of black seeds (Nigella Sativa) on spermatogenesis and fertility of male albino rats.Res J Med Med Sci.2009;4(2):386-390.
  16. Ansari MA, Ahmed AP, Haider S et al.Nagilla sativa: a non-conventional herbal option for the management of seasonal allergic rhinitis.Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology.2006;23(2):31-35.
  17. Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Aryani FHN et al.Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of Nigella sativa.Am J Otolaryngol - Head Neck Med Surg.2011;32(5):402-407.
  18. Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J et al.Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases.Phyther Res.2003;17(10):1209-1214.
  19. Farhangi MA, Dehghan P, Tajmiri S et al.The effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a randomized controlled trial.BMC Complement Altern Med.2016;16:471.
  20. Tajmiri S, Farhangi MA, Dehghan P.Nigella Sativa treatment and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) in patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.Eur J Integr Med.2016;8(4):576-580.
  21. Gilani AH, Jabeen Q, Khan MAU.A review of medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Nigella sativa.Pakistan J Biol Sci.2004;7(4):441-451.
  22. Sharma NKK, Ahirwar D, Jhade D et al.Medicinal and phamacological potential of nigella sativa: a review.Ethnobot Leafl.2009;13:946-955.
  23. Aboul Ezz HS, Khadrawy YA, Noor NA.The neuroprotective effect of curcumin and nigella sativa oil against oxidative stress in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy: a comparison with valproate.Neurochem Res.2011;36:2195.
  24. Akhondian J, Parsa A, Rakhshande H.The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures.Med Sci Monit.2007;13(12):CR555-559.
  25. Dahri AH, Chandiol AM, Rahoo AA et al.Effect of Nigella sativa (Kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats.J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad.2005.
  26. Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Mahassini N et al.Acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella sativa fixed oil.Phytomedicine.2002;9:69-74.
  27. Najmi A, Haque SF, Naseeruddin M et al.Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome.Int J Diabetes Metab.2008;16:85-87.
  28. Najmi A, Nasiruddin M, Khan RA et al.Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome.Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries.2008;28(1):11-4.
  29. Tekeoglu I, Dogan A, Demiralp L.Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models.Phyther Res.2006;21(9):895-897.
  30. Gheita TA, Kenawy SA.Effectiveness of Nigell sativ oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: placebo controlled study.Phyther Res.2012;26(8):1246-1248.
  31. Dharan BG, Rosy ML, Esther KT et al.Efficacy of siddha medicine in treating lasuna thaabitham (tonsillitis)–a review.Siddha Papers.2015;1(1).
  32. Sudhir SP, Deshmukh VO, Verma HN.Nigella sativa seed, a novel beauty care ingredient: a review.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research.2016;7(8):3185-3196.
  33. Keshri G, Singh MM, Lakshmi V et al.Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Nigella sativa in rats.Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.1995;7(4):59-62.
  34. Ekanem JT, Yusuf OK.Some biochemical and haematological effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil on T. brucei-infected rats.African J Biomed Res.2008;7(2):153-157.
  35. Tariq M.Nigella sativa seeds: folklore treatment in modern day medicine.Saudi J Gastroenterol.2008;14(3):105–106.
  36. Randhawa MA, Al-Ghamdi MS.A review of the pharmaco-therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa.Pakistan J. Med. Res.2002;41(2):77-83.
  37. Khan MA, Chen HC, Tania M et al.Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin).African J Tradit Complement Altern Med.2011;8(S):226-232.
  38. Chehl N, Chipitsyna G, Gong Q et al.Anti-inflammatory effects of the Nigella sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, in pancreatic cancer cells.HPB.2009;11(5):373-381.
  39. Hosseinzadeh H, Eskandari M, Ziaee T.Antitussive effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in guinea pigs.Pharmacologyonline.2008;2:480-484.
  40. Boskabady MH, Kiani S, Jandaghi P et al.Comparison of antitussive effect of Nigella sativa with codeine in guinea pig.Iran J Med Sci.2003;28(3):111-115.
  41. Paarakh PM. Nigella sativa Linn.- a comprehensive review.Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources.2010;1(4):409-429.
  42. Gali-Muhtasib H, El-Najjar N, Schneider-Stock R.The medicinal potential of black seed (Nigella sativa) and its components.Advances in Phytomedicine.2006;2:133-153.
  43. Hosseinzadeh H, Tafaghodi M, Mosavi MJ et al.Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds on milk production in rats.J Acupunct Meridian Stud.2013;6(1):18-23.
  44. Iqbal MS, Qureshi AS, Ghafoor A.Evaluation of Nigella sativa L., for genetic variation and ex-situ conservation.Pakistan J Bot.2010;42(2):2489-2495.
  45. Mousavi G.Study on the effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.) on experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Acta cirúrgica Bras/Soc Bras para Desenvolv Pesqui em Cir.2015;30(8):542-550.
  46. Sangi S, Ahmed SP, Channa MA et al.A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg.J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad.2008;20(2):118-124.
  47. Ahmed MA, Hassanein KMA.Cardio protective effects of Nigella sativa oil on lead induced cardio toxicity: anti inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism.J. Physiol. Pathophysiol.2013;4(5):72-80.
  48. Shafiq H, Ahmad A, Masud T et al.Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa.Iran J Basic Med Sci.2014;17(12):967–979.
  49. Khalawi AA, Al-Robai AA, Khoja SM, et al.Can Nigella sativa oil (NSO) reverse hypothyroid status induced by PTU in rat? Biochemical and Histological Studies.Life Science Journal.2013;10(2):802-811.
  50. Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Mirshamsi MH et al.Effectiveness of topical Nigella sativa seed oil in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia: a randomized, triple-blind, active, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.Planta Med.2015; 82:285-288.
  51. Islam MT.Biological activities and therapeutic promises of Nigella sativa L.International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientific Research.2016;2(6):237-252.
  52. Hussain DA, Hussain MM.Nigella sativa (black seed) is an effective herbal remedy for every disease except death – a prophetic statement which modern scientists confirm unanimously: a review.Adv Med Plant Res.2016;4(2):27-57.
  53. Botnick I, Xue W, Bar E et al.Distribution of primary and specialized metabolites in Nigella sativa seeds, a spice with vast traditional and historical uses.Molecules.2012;17:10159-10177.
  54. Dwarampudi LP, Palaniswamy D, Nithyanantham M et al.Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds.Pharmacogn Mag.2012;8(32):268-72.
  55. Amin B, Hosseinzadeh H.Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its active constituent, thymoquinone: an overview on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.Planta Medica.2016.;82:8-16.
Disclaimer
The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.