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Cinnamon

Cinnamon
Cinnamon, also known as Dalchini, is a spice found in almost every kitchen.
Cinnamon is an effective remedy for managing diabetes as it improves the uptake of glucose in the body. It also lowers high cholesterol level and reduces the risk of heart diseases due to its antioxidant property. It can also be used to relieve menstrual pain as it possesses anti-spasmodic property.
You can consume it daily by adding some Cinnamon bark into your tea or adding a pinch of Cinnamon powder in lemon water. This helps enhance digestion and manage weight.
Cinnamon is good for controlling acne due to its antibacterial property. You can mix Cinnamon powder with honey and use it as a facepack to get rid of acne[2-5].

What are the synonyms of Cinnamon?

Cinnamomum zeylanicum, True Cinnamon, Darusita, Dalcheni, Daruchini, Cinnamon bark, Karuvapatta, Ilavarngathely, Guda twak, Lavangapatta, Dalchini chekka, Darchini [1]

What is the source of Cinnamon?

Plant Based

Benefits of Cinnamon

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2)?

scientific
Scientific View
SCIENTIFIC VIEW
Cinnamon might be useful in managing diabetes by improving glucose uptake. Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon also prevents the conversion of glucose to sorbitol and reduces the risk of diabetic complications[23][24].
Tip:
Add Cinnamon powder to your tea or coffee, or sprinkle it on your toast or cereal.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps to manage a normal sugar level. According to Ayurveda, diabetes also known as Madhumeha is due to an aggravation of Vata and impaired digestion. Impaired digestion leads to an accumulation of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) in the pancreatic cells and impairs the function of insulin. Cinnamon helps to correct impaired digestion due to its Ushna (hot) potency. This reduces Ama and improves the function of insulin, thus manages a normal blood sugar level.

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Coronary artery disease?

scientific
Scientific View
Coronary artery disease is a condition in which the arteries through which the blood flows to heart narrows and become hard. This is due to the deposition of plaque inside the arteries. Cinnamon has an antioxidant property which lowers the risk of narrowing of arteries. It also has anti-inflammatory property and regulates high blood pressure by relaxing narrowed blood vessels. Together it reduces the risk of coronary artery disease[14].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps to reduce the risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD). In Ayurveda, all type of coronary artery diseases come under Sira Dushti (narrowing of arteries). CAD is mainly due to an imbalance of Kapha dosha which increases the risk of blood clotting. Taking Cinnamon helps to balance Kapha which prevents blood clotting and also reduces the chance of Sira Dushti (narrowing of arteries).
Tip
1. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon sticks.
2. Boil on the medium flame for 5-6 minutes
3. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
4. Drink this twice a day to reduce the risk of coronary artery diseases.

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Allergic conditions?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon might give relieve in case of nasal allergy by blocking the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators like cytokines, leukotrienes and PGD2[20].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps to manage the symptoms of allergy when taken with honey. An allergy occurs as a result of an accumulation of Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) in the body. This is due to an imbalance of Kapha dosha. Cinnamon prevents the formation of Ama due to its Ushna (hot) nature and also helps in balancing Kapha thus, manage the symptoms of allergy.
Tip
1. Take 1-2 pinch of Cinnamon powder.
2. Mix with honey and make a paste.
3. Swallow it twice a day after taking light food.
4. Repeat till you do not get relief from the symptoms of allergy.

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Fungal infections?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamaldehyde present in Cinnamon shows antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (pathogenic yeast), thereby reducing the risk of fungal infections[2].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps reduce the risk of fungal/yeast infections in the body due to its Tikshna (sharp) and Ushna (hot) properties.

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Irritable bowel syndrome?

scientific
Scientific View
Some studies suggest that Cinnamon might be useful in reducing symptoms of IBS[22].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
AYURVEDIC VIEW
Cinnamon helps to control the symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). According to Ayurveda, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is also known as Grahani. Grahani is caused by an imbalance of Pachak Agni (digestive fire). Cinnamon helps to improve Pachak Agni (digestive fire) due to its Ushna (hot) nature. This helps control the symptoms of IBS.
Tips:
1. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon sticks.
2. Boil on the medium flame for 5-6 minutes.
3. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
4. Drink this twice a day to reduce the symptoms of IBS.

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Menstrual pain?

scientific
Scientific View
Cramps and menstrual pain during periods is due to increasing levels of progesterone.
Cinnamon has two active constituents name cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde works as an anti-spasmodic and eugenol prevents synthesis of prostaglandins and reduces inflammation. Therefore, Cinnamon significantly reduces the pain and discomfort during menstruation[25].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon is one of the best home remedies to reduce pain during menstruation or dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is the pain or cramps during or before a menstrual period. In Ayurveda, this condition is known as Kasht-aartava. Aartava or Menstruation is controlled and governed by Vata dosha. So it is important that in a woman, Vata should be under control to manage dysmenorrhea. Cinnamon has Vata balancing property and gives relief in dysmenorrhea. It controls aggravated Vata and reduces abdominal pain and cramps during the menstruation.
Tips:
1. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon sticks.
2. Boil on the medium flame for 5-6 minutes.
3. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
4. Drink this twice a day to reduce pain during menstruation.

How effective is Cinnamon?

Insufficient evidence
Allergic conditions, Appetite stimulant, Common cold symptoms, Coronary artery disease, Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2), Flatulence (gas formation), Food poisoning, Fungal infections, Influenza (flu), Irritable bowel syndrome, Menstrual pain, Muscle spasm, Premature ejaculation, Worm infections

Precautions when using Cinnamon

Advice from Experts
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
1. Cinnamon is Ushna virya (hot) in potency. So, it is advisable to take in small quantity and for a short duration of time in case of gastritis or an aggravated Pitta (heat) in the body.
2. It is advisable to take Cinnamon under doctor’s supervision if you have any bleeding disorder like nasal bleeding or heavy bleeding during menstruation.
Breastfeeding
scientific
Scientific View
It is safe to take Cinnamon in food amounts if you are breastfeeding. However, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Cinnamon supplements[19].
Moderate Medicine Interaction
scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon sticks or powder may decrease the platelet count in the blood and increase the risk of bleeding. So it is generally advisable to monitor the platelet count while taking Cinnamon along with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs[2][19].
Patients with diabetes
scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon may lower blood glucose level. So it is generally advisable to monitor the blood glucose level regularly while taking Cinnamon along with anti-diabetic drugs[7].
Patients with heart disease
scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon may lower blood pressure. So it is generally advisable to monitor the blood pressure regularly while taking Cinnamon along with anti-hypertensive drugs[7][19].
Pregnancy
scientific
Scientific View
It is safe to take Cinnamon in food amounts during pregnancy. However, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Cinnamon supplements[19].


Side Effects
Important
scientific
Scientific View
1. Diarrhea
2. Vomiting
3. Dizziness
4. Drowsiness[7]
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon can increase the burning sensation in the stomach in case of aggravated Pitta in the body.

Recommended Dosage of Cinnamon

  • Cinnamon Powder - 1-2 pinch of powder twice a day.
  • Cinnamon Capsule - 1-2 capsules in a day.

How to use Cinnamon

1. Cinnamon Powder
a. Take 1-2 pinches of Cinnamon powder.
b. Add 1 teaspoon of honey to it.
c. Take it preferably after meals twice a day.

2. Cinnamon Capsule
a. Take 1-2 Cinnamon capsules.
b. Swallow it with water twice a day after taking lunch and dinner.

3. Cinnamon Lemon water
a. Take 1 glass of lukewarm water.
b. Add 1-2 pinches of Cinnamon powder.
c. Squeeze ½ lemon into it.
d. Also, add 1 teaspoon of honey to it and stir well.
e. Drink this daily to aid weight loss[9].

4. Cinnamon Turmeric milk
a. Put 1 glass of milk in a pan and bring it to a boil.
b. Now add 2 pinches of Cinnamon powder and stir till it dissolves.
c. Drink this milk when it becomes lukewarm.
d. Take it preferably before going to bed for insomnia and arthritic pain[8].

5. Cinnamon Tea
a. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon bark.
b. Boil on medium flame for 5-6 minutes.
c. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
d. Drink this twice a day to reduce stress and for weight loss[9].

Benefits of Cinnamon

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Acne?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon has antibacterial property which helps control acne by inhibiting the growth and activity of acne-causing bacteria. It also has anti-inflammatory property and helps reduce pain and redness around acne[5].

What are the benefits of Cinnamon for Fungal infections of mouth (Thrush)?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon might improve fungal infections in the mouth, a condition known as thrush, in some people with HIV. Cinnamaldehyde present in Cinnamon shows antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (pathogenic yeast), thereby reducing the risk of fungal infections[2].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon has Tikshna (sharpness) and Ushna (hot) properties due to which it minimizes the risk of yeast infections in the body.

How effective is Cinnamon?

Likely effective
Acne
Insufficient evidence
Fungal infections of mouth (Thrush), Mouth sores

Precautions when using Cinnamon

Advice from Experts
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
1. Use Cinnamon oil with caution in case of hypersensitive or oily skin.
2. Avoid the use of Cinnamon oil in high dose and for a prolonged time.
Side Effects
Important
scientific
Scientific View
1. Skin rash and swelling
2. Swelling of the tongue
3. Swelling and sores in the mouth[19]

Recommended Dosage of Cinnamon

  • Cinnamon Powder - 1-2 teaspoons or as per your requirement.
  • Cinnamon Oil - 2-3 drops or as per your requirement.

How to use Cinnamon

1.Cinnamon Honey Facepack
a. Take 1 pinch of Cinnamon powder.
b. Mix it with 1 teaspoon of honey.
c. Apply to the affected area.
d. Wait for 5-10 minutes.
e. Wash with tap water.
f. Use this thrice a week to control acne and blemishes[5].

2. Cinnamon Oil in Sesame Oil
a. Take 2-3 drops of Cinnamon Oil.
b. Add 5-6 drops of Sesame Oil.
c. Apply once a day to get relief from joint pain.

Frequently asked questions

Q. Where can Cinnamon be used in day to day life?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon is used in a wide range of foods and beverages like bakery items, puddings, desserts, ice-creams, candy, chewing gum, curries, flavored rice, soups, sauces, herbal tea and aerated drinks. Cinnamon bark is also a common ingredient in many products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, perfume, soap, lipstick, cough syrup and nasal sprays.

Q. How to store Cinnamon?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon powder or Cinnamon sticks should be kept in a tightly sealed container in a cool, dark and dry place. Cinnamon powder lasts for about six months whereas Cinnamon sticks remain fresh for as long as one year.

Q. How to check the effectiveness of Cinnamon?

scientific
Scientific View
In case of Cinnamon powder, take a small amount and rub it between your fingers and in case of Cinnamon sticks, break an end and crush it between your fingers. If the Cinnamon is potent, it should smell fresh and strong. A weak scent indicates that Cinnamon is losing its effectiveness.

Q. Can you reuse Cinnamon sticks?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon sticks can actually be used several times before they lose their flavor. To reuse your Cinnamon stick, simply rinse under hot water then allow it to dry. To get the best flavor from your Cinnamon stick the next time you use it, run it over a grater a few times to release the flavors.

Q. Can Honey with Cinnamon help in weight loss?

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Yes, you can take Cinnamon powder with honey for weight loss. This is because both have the property of balancing Kapha which is the prime cause of an increase in weight.

Q. Can I take Cinnamon powder with Ginger?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, you can take Cinnamon powder with Ginger due to their antioxidant property. It is especially good in case of muscle fatigue due to intense exercise. Contracting skeletal muscles produce free radicals that can cause oxidative stress leading to muscular fatigue. Ginger and Cinnamon have antioxidant property that destroy free radicals and reduce oxidative stress. This helps to reduce muscle fatigue and improves exercise performance[27].

Q. Are Cinnamon sticks edible?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, Cinnamon sticks are edible and are used as a spice and a flavoring agent. The best way is to roast the Cinnamon sticks a little and then crush to form a powder. You can use this Cinnamon powder in food and drinks.

Q. Can Cinnamon help you lose weight?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon powder improves metabolism by breaking down dietary fat molecules and by improving the glucose uptake[9].
Tip:
1. Take 1-2 pinch of Cinnamon powder with 1 teaspoon of honey after taking light food twice a day.
2. Continue for at least 2-3 months for better results.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
An increase in weight is due to unhealthy food habits and lifestyle which leads to a weak digestive fire. This increases accumulation of Ama causing an imbalance in Meda Dhatu and resulting in obesity. Cinnamon is useful in weight management as it helps improve metabolism and reduce Ama. This is due to its Ushna (hot) nature. It balances Meda Dhatu and thus reduces weight.

Q. Can Cinnamon help in digestion?

scientific
Scientific View
Regular use of Cinnamon powder might be effective in various gastrointestinal disturbances like indigestion, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, acidity and morning sickness[3].
Tip:
1. Take 1-2 pinches of Cinnamon powder.
2. Add 1 teaspoonful of honey.
3. Take it thrice a day.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps to correct digestion-related problems like indigestion. According to Ayurveda, indigestion means the state of an incomplete process of digestion. The main reason for indigestion is aggravated Kapha that causes Agnimandya (weak digestive fire). Taking Cinnamon helps to improve Agni (digestive fire) and digests the food easily. This is due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties respectively.
Tip:
1. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon bark to it.
2. Boil on medium flame for 5-6 minutes.
3. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
4. Drink this twice a day to manage indigestion.

Q. Can patients with liver disorders consume Cinnamon?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon contains coumarin, a flavoring component. Excess consumption of coumarin should be avoided in patients with liver/hepatic disorders as it may cause liver toxicity and liver damage[2].

Q. Is Cinnamon good for reducing high cholesterol level?

scientific
Scientific View
Although not enough scientific evidence is available, Cinnamon powder is known to reduce the level of total cholesterol and LDL[26].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps to reduce high cholesterol level when it is added to your daily diet. High cholesterol is due to an imbalance of Pachak Agni (digestive fire). Impaired digestion at the tissue level produces excess waste products or Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion). This causes the accumulation of bad cholesterol. Cinnamon helps to improve Agni and reduce Ama. This is due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties. As a result, it reduces high cholesterol level and removes blockage from the blood vessels.

Tip:
1. Take 1-2 pinches of Cinnamon powder.
2. Add 1 teaspoon of honey to it.
3. Take it preferably after meals twice a day.

Q. Does Cinnamon cause acid reflux?

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Generally, Cinnamon helps to improve digestion and gives relief in indigestion or gas by improving the digestive fire (Pachak Agni). But if it is taken in a high amount it can cause acid reflux because of its Ushna (hot) property. So, it is advisable to take Cinnamon powder with honey or milk.

Q. Can I take Cinnamon powder with Turmeric in warm water on an empty stomach?

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Yes, you can take Cinnamon powder with Turmeric in warm water on an empty stomach to reduce excess body fat. But if you have a history of acidity, please avoid taking it on an empty stomach or in high dose. This is because both the herbs are Ushna (hot) in nature and can increase the symptoms of acidity.

Q. How to use Cinnamon for weight loss?

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Tip:
1. Put 1.5 cups of water in a pan and add 2 inches of Cinnamon bark to it.
2. Boil on medium flame for 5-6 minutes.
3. Strain and squeeze ½ lemon to it.
4. Drink this twice a day for effective weight management.

Q. What are the benefits of drinking Cinnamon tea?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon tea has a calming effect on the body. Drinking Cinnamon tea daily may help control sugar levels after meals, assists in circulation and supports digestion[28][29].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon is very useful herb to maintain a healthy body and mind. Cinnamon tea is one of the best ways of taking Cinnamon in day to day life. Cinnamon tea has a calming effect on the body because of its Vata balancing nature. It also helps to maintain good digestion and blood sugar levels by improving metabolism due to its Deepan (appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties.

Q. Is Cinnamon good for women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon may be useful in managing the complications of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It improves insulin resistance as well as menstrual cyclicity making it a probable natural source for the management of PCOS[30][31].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
According to Ayurveda, the imbalance of Kapha and Vata in the body plays a key role in developing PCOS in females. Cinnamon, when added to your daily diet, balances Vata and Kapha in the body and helps manage the symptoms of PCOS.

Q. Is Cinnamon beneficial for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's?

scientific
Scientific View
Yes, incorporating Cinnamon in the diet may be beneficial for neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. It affects the levels of a protein that protects the cells of the brain from oxidative damage. This helps improve motor activities and protects the brain cells from further damage[32][33].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Parkinson’s disease is caused due to defects in neurotransmission. A disease condition 'Vepathu' described in Ayurveda may be correlated with Parkinson's disease. It is caused due to vitiated Vata dosha. Taking Cinnamon in your daily routine helps to balance Vata and control the symptoms of Parkinson’s diseasess.

Q. What are the benefits of Cinnamon for skin?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon has antibacterial and antifungal properties and helps to lower the risk of skin infections. It also has antioxidant property and reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles[3].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon works well on oily skin. It helps in clearing skin pores and exfoliates dead skin cells due to its Rukhsana (dry) and Tiksna (sharp) nature.
Tip:
1. Take a pinch of Cinnamon powder.
2. Mix it with 1 teaspoon Honey.
3. Apply on the skin and keep for 5 minutes.
4. Repeat twice a week for better results.

Q. What does Cinnamon do to your hair?

scientific
Scientific View
Although not enough studies are available, Cinnamon is said to control hair loss to some extent[3].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Cinnamon powder.
2. Add 1 teaspoon of honey, 1 tablespoon of Olive oil and mix well.
3. Massage your scalp properly with this mixture and leave it for 20 minutes.
4. Wash with a mild shampoo.
5. Use this paste for at least once a week for better results.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon helps in hair regrowth and controls dandruff due to its Rukhsana (dry) and Tiksna (sharp) properties.

Q. Can Cinnamon powder prevent skin aging?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon promotes the synthesis of collagen protein within the skin cells and helps in improving the signs and symptoms of aging. Cinnamon powder when applied on the face with honey, improves the skin texture and elasticity of the skin[18].

Q. Is Cinnamon good for your dental health?

scientific
Scientific View
Cinnamon acts as a natural antibacterial agent and reduces the biofilm formation on the teeth. It also inhibits the production of gas and acids by oral bacteria to prevent halitosis (bad breath)[13].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Cinnamon improves the strength of teeth and helps relieve bad breath due to its Katu (pungent) and Tikta (bitter) nature. As a result of this, Cinnamon oil and powder are used as an ingredient in toothpaste and Ayurvedic Manjan (tooth powder).
Tip:
1. Apply Cinnamon oil directly on the tooth in case of a toothache.
2. Use toothpaste and Ayurvedic Majan (tooth powder) containing Cinnamon on a daily basis to maintain good oral health.

Q. What are the reported adverse reactions to Cinnamon oil exposure?

scientific
Scientific View
Prolonged contact with undiluted Cinnamon oil can lead to chemical burns.
Tip:
To avoid this, apply a small amount of Cinnamon oil on the skin to check for any reaction[17].

References

  1. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India.Part 1 Volume 1.
  2. Kawatra P, Rajagopalan R.Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient.Pharmacognosy Res.2015;7(1):1-6.
  3. Maheshwari RK, Chauhan AK, Gupta A, et al.Cinnamon: An imperative spice for human comfort.IJPRBS.2013;2(5):131-145.
  4. Rao PV, Gan SH:Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2014.
  5. Julianti E, Rajah KK, Fidrianny I.Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination effects against acne-causing bacteria.Sci Pharm.2017;85(2):E19.
  6. Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GAS, et al.Medicinal properties of ‘true’ Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): A systematic review.BMC Complement Altern Med.2013;13:275.
  7. WebMD.Cinnamon: Uses, Side effects, Doses, Interactions [Internet].Atlanta [last updated in 2016].
  8. Gupta Jain S, Puri S, Misra A, et al.Effect of oral Cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double-blind control trial.Lipids in Health and Disease.2017;16(1):113.
  9. Shalaby MA, Saifan HY.Some pharmacological effects of Cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats.J Intercult Ethnopharmacol.2014;3(4):144–149.
  10. Brancheau D, Patel B, Zughaib M.Do Cinnamon supplements cause acute hepatitis?Am J Case Rep.2015;16:250-254.
  11. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Martino LD, et al.Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria. Pharmaceuticals 2013;6:1451-1474.
  12. Anand V, Kumar S, Manickam AH, et al.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Linn. The spice with multi potential.Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy.2016;7(1):24-29.
  13. Kim HY, Park JB.In vitro evaluation of anti-caries effect of Cinnamon extracts on oral pathogens.Biomedical Research.2017;28(6):2848-2853.
  14. Collazo JA, Carbajo LA, Medina AIL, et al.Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells.Pflugers Arch.2014;466(11):2089-99.
  15. Rathi B, Bodhankar S, Mohan V.Ameliorative effects of a polyphenolic fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. bark in animal models of inflammation and arthritis.Sci Pharm.2013;81:567–589.
  16. Allen RW, Schwartzman E, Baker WL, et al.Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.Ann Fam Med.2013;11(5):452-459.
  17. Connolly M, Axtell A, Hickey S, et al.Chemical burn from Cinnamon oil.Eplasty.2017;17:ic11.
  18. Binic I, Lazarevic V, Ljubenovic M, et al.Skin ageing: Natural weapons and strategies.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2013;2013:10.
  19. Ulbricht CE.Natural Standard:Herb and Supplement Guide, An Evidence Based Reference.Elsevier;2010.
  20. Gupta SC, Sahdeo P, Aggarwal BB(Ed.).Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Drug Discovery from Mother Nature. Springer.2016.
  21. Shahina Z, El-Ganiny AM, Minion J, et al.Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil induces cell wall remodelling and spindle defects in Candida albicans.Fungal Biol Biotechnol.2018;5(3)1-16.
  22. Esmaillzadeh A, Keshteli AH, Hajishafiee M, et al.Consumption of spicy foods and the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol.2013;19(38):6465-6471.
  23. Hamidpour R, Hamidpour M, Hamidpour S, et al.Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effect on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities. J Tradit Complement Med.2015;5(2):66–70.
  24. Das M, Mandal S, Mallick B, et al. Ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume. Int Res J Pharm.2013;4(4):58-63.
  25. Jaafarpour M, Hatefi M, Khani A, et al. Comparative effect of Cinnamon and ibuprofen for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research.2015;9(4):4-7.
  26. Anderson RA, Zhan Z, Luo R.Cinnamon extract lowers glucose, insulin and cholesterol in people with elevated serum glucose.J Tradit Complement Med.2016;6(4):332–336.
  27. Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Hariri M, et al.Effect of ginger and cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in iranian female athletes.Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(1):31–35.
  28. Ravikumar C.Review on herbal teas.J. Pharm. Sci. & Res.2014;6(5):236-238.
  29. Bernardo MA, Silva ML, Santos E et al.Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.J Diabetes Res.2015;2015:913651.
  30. Dou L, Zheng Y, Li Let al.The effect of cinnamon on polycystic ovary syndrome in a mouse model.Reprod Biol Endocrinol.2018;16(1):99
  31. Kort DH, Lobo RA.Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.Am J Obstet Gynecol.2014;211(5):487:e1-e6.
  32. Khasnavis S, Pahan K.Cinnamon treatment upregulates neuroprotective proteins parkin and DJ-1 and protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.J Neuroimmune Pharmacol.2014;9(4):569-581.
  33. Rao PV, Gan SW.Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2014:12 pages.
Disclaimer
The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.

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