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Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar or ACV is a health tonic for strength and power. It is prepared by adding yeast and bacteria to apple juice which renders a sour taste and a strong smell to it.
ACV is useful in weight loss and helps with proper digestion. Diabetics can take ACV by diluting it with water as it helps lower blood sugar levels. ACV may also be used to manage high cholesterol and symptoms of heart diseases due to its antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering properties.
ACV is useful for skin and hair problems due to its antibacterial property. It can be diluted with water and applied on the skin and scalp to manage acne and dandruff.
It should be kept in mind that Apple cider vinegar can irritate the throat, mouth and skin if used without dilution[1-3][18][19].

What are the synonyms of Apple cider vinegar?

Malus sylvestris, Saib ka sirka, Cider Vinegar, Araththikkaadi

What is the source of Apple cider vinegar?

Plant Based

Benefits of Apple cider vinegar

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for Obesity?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might help in losing weight by controlling appetite and by increasing fat metabolism[14]. An animal study suggests that acetic acid present in Apple cider vinegar reduces fat accumulation by activating the fat burning enzyme AMPK in the liver. Also, ACV might slow the breakdown of starch to sugar and prevent fat accumulation in the body[6].

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Ayurveda says that an increase in weight can be due to Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) and Apple cider vinegar reduces Ama by increasing Pachak Agni (digestive fire).
Tip:
1. Take a glass of water.
2. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
3. Mix well and drink it just before meals[6].
4. Or, you can drink it on an empty stomach in the morning to reduce belly fat.

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2)?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might control blood sugar in diabetic patients. Some studies suggest that the acetic acid present in Apple cider vinegar slows the breakdown of carbohydrates to sugar in the bloodstream. This helps in controlling blood sugar level especially after consuming a carbohydrate-rich meal[4][5]. In addition to this, studies have found that taking ACV at bedtime might reduce fasting blood glucose level in the morning[15].

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Sometimes Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) might be the cause of high sugar level in the blood. Apple cider vinegar might lower blood sugar level by increasing Pachak Agni (digestive fire) which helps in reducing Ama in the body.
Tip:
1. Take 1 glass of water.
2. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
3. You can gradually increase the amount to 3-4 teaspoon.
4. Mix well and drink it half an hour before meals or just before bedtime.

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for High cholesterol?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar can lower the level of LDL or bad cholesterol due to the presence of acetic acid. It also helps improve the level of HDL or good cholesterol[12]. Another study states that an antioxidant called chlorogenic acid in Apple cider vinegar can prevent the oxidation of LDL thus reducing the level of LDL in the blood[17].

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
High cholesterol might be due to an imbalance of Pachak Agni (digestive fire) which leads to excess Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion) in the body. This then blocks the channels and causes accumulation of ‘bad’ cholesterol in the body. Apple cider vinegar helps to control high cholesterol level by increasing Pachak Agni (digestive fire) and eventually Ama.
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar in 1 glass of water.
2. Mix well and drink.
3. You can gradually increase the amount to 2-3 teaspoons.

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for Hypertension (high blood pressure)?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might help manage high blood pressure if taken in the right amount along with a healthy diet and lifestyle. Although there is not enough evidence, some animal studies suggest that Apple cider vinegar reduces the activity of an enzyme called renin which plays a major role in increasing blood pressure. This thus helps control high blood pressure.
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar in 1 glass of water.
2. Mix well and drink.
3. You can gradually increase the amount to 3-4 teaspoons.

How effective is Apple cider vinegar?

Insufficient evidence
Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2), High cholesterol, Hypertension (high blood pressure), Obesity

Precautions when using Apple cider vinegar

Advice from Experts
Important
scientific
Modern Science View
1. Never drink undiluted Apple cider vinegar as it can damage and burn your food pipe. It can also destroy the tooth enamel due to its acidic properties[18].
2. Use Apple cider vinegar with caution if you have osteoporosis[18].
3. Avoid Apple cider vinegar with acidic fruits or juices (such as lemon, oranges) since both of them are acidic in nature. This might lead to hyperacidity or reflux[18].
4. Avoid Apple cider vinegar immediately after drinking tea or coffee as it might disturb the digestion process and lead to vomiting[18].
Breastfeeding
scientific
Modern Science View
Avoid Apple cider vinegar if you are breastfeeding due to lack of sufficient evidence[18].
Patients with diabetes
scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar can affect insulin levels in the body. Therefore, monitor your blood sugar levels if you are taking ACV along with anti-diabetic medications[18].
Patients with heart disease
scientific
Modern Science View
Long-term use of Apple cider vinegar in cardiac patients taking diuretics might result in severe hypokalemia. So, monitor your potassium levels regularly if you are taking Apple cider vinegar along with anti-hypertensive drugs[18].
Pregnancy
scientific
Modern Science View
Avoid Apple cider vinegar during pregnancy due to lack of sufficient evidence[18].

Recommended Dosage of Apple cider vinegar

  • Apple cider vinegar Liquid - 1-2 teaspoon in 1 glass of water once a day.
  • Apple cider vinegar Capsule - 1-2 capsules once a day.
  • Apple cider vinegar Tablet - 1-2 tablets once a day.

How to use Apple cider vinegar

1. Apple cider vinegar with water
a. Take 1 glass of lukewarm water
b. Add 1-2 teaspoons of Apple cider vinegar to it and mix well.
c. Drink this in the morning or preferably after meals for better results

2. Apple cider vinegar Capsules
a. Take 1-2 capsules of Apple cider vinegar.
b. Swallow it with water.
c. Repeat this once a day.

3. Apple cider vinegar Tablets
a. Take 1-2 tablets of Apple cider vinegar.
b. Swallow it with water.
c. Repeat this once a day.

4. Homemade salad dressing
a. Take 2-3 cups of chopped vegetables like onions, cucumber, carrots etc.
b. Add 2 tablespoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
c. Add 2 teaspoons of mayonnaise and salt to taste.
d. Have this before or during a meal.

5. Your everyday drink
a. Take an insulated flask and fill it with warm water.
b. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
c. Make a habit to drink this water whenever you feel thirsty.

Benefits of Apple cider vinegar

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for Acne?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might help manage acne because of its acidic property. Apple cider vinegar balances the normal pH of the skin and creates a barrier to acne-causing bacteria.


ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
A Kapha-Pitta dosha skin type can be prone to acne. According to Ayurveda, an aggravation of Kapha leads to an increased sebum production and clogging of pores which results in the formation of both white and blackheads. Another factor, an aggravation of Pitta, is marked by the appearance of some red papules (bumps) and inflammation with pus. Apple cider vinegar balances both Kapha and helps fight against acne-causing bacteria as well as restore the pH level of the skin.due to its Amla (sour) property.
Tip:
1. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to 3 teaspoons of fresh water.
2. Dip a clean cotton pad in the mixture and apply on to the affected area.
3. Keep it for 3-5 minutes.
4. Rinse it with cool plain water and pat dry.
5. Repeat this daily for 1 month for better results.
6. Always remember to use Apple cider vinegar by diluting it with equal amounts of water to prevent discoloration and scarring of the skin[2].

What are the benefits of Apple cider vinegar for Dandruff?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might help manage dandruff to some extent. This is due to its acidic property which helps balance the pH of the hair.

ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
As per Ayurveda, dandruff is a condition marked by flakes of dry skin on the scalp which may be attributed to an aggravated Vata and Pitta dosha. Apple cider vinegar helps control dandruff due to its Amla (sour) property. It also helps to maintain the pH balance of hair, thus making it smoother, stronger, and shinier.
Tip:
1. Take 1/4th cup of Apple cider vinegar in 1 mug of plain water.
2. Pour this mixture evenly on the hair and scalp.
3. Let it sit for 5 minutes.
4. Rinse it with plain water.

How effective is Apple cider vinegar?

Insufficient evidence
Acne, Dandruff

Precautions when using Apple cider vinegar

Advice from Experts
Important
scientific
Modern Science View
1. Be very careful before using Apple cider vinegar topically as it is highly acidic in nature. It may burn your skin if applied without diluting with water[1][18].
Allergy
Important
scientific
Modern Science View
1. It is advisable to do a small patch test on the skin before using ACV[15].
2. Avoid its use if you are allergic or hypersensitive to any products having similar constituents of ACV[15].

Recommended Dosage of Apple cider vinegar

  • Apple cider vinegar Liquid - 1 teaspoon diluted in 3-4 teaspoons of cool water.

How to use Apple cider vinegar

1. Face-Toner
a. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to 2-3 teaspoons water.
b. Dip the cotton pad in the mixture and apply on to the face, neck and hands.
c. Keep it for 3-5 minutes.
d. Rinse your face with cool plain water and pat dry.
e. Repeat it for 2-3 times a day for a clear and glowing skin[2].

2. Body Scrub
a. Take ½ cup of granulated sugar.
b. Add 1 tablespoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
c. Now add 1 teaspoon of honey to the mixture.
d. Rub this mixture on your whole body in circular motion for 5 minutes.
e. Rinse it off with fresh water[2].

3. Hair Conditioner
a. Shampoo and condition your hair properly.
b. Add 1/4th cup of Apple cider vinegar in 1 mug of plain water.
c. Pour this mixture evenly on the hair and scalp.
d. Let it sit for 5 minutes.
e. Rinse it with plain water for healthy and shiny hair.

Frequently asked questions

Q. What is Bragg’s Apple cider vinegar?

scientific
Modern Science View
Bragg’s organic Apple cider vinegar is considered one of the best brands as it is made from organically grown apples. It is unfiltered, unheated, unpasteurized and contains the “Mother” of vinegar (a combination of probiotic bacteria, enzymes and proteins).

Q. What are the storage conditions of Apple cider vinegar?

scientific
Modern Science View
You need not store Apple cider vinegar in the refrigerator. However, to retain the flavor and the quality of vinegar, it is best if you keep the opened bottle tightly capped and in a cool, dry, dark place. This prevents the growth of bacteria and helps in maintaining its quality.

Q. Can Apple cider vinegar (ACV) reduce bloating?

scientific
Modern Science View
Although enough scientific evidence is not available, some experts say that Apple cider vinegar might relieve you from intestinal discomforts. This might be due to the acidic nature of ACV which helps in proper digestion and relieves from bloating.
Tip:
1. Take 1-2 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar in a glass of water and mix well.
2. Drink this half an hour before taking food twice daily.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Apple cider vinegar aids digestion by increasing the flow of bile (Pitta Ras). This helps in proper digestion of food and thus prevents bloating.

Q. Can drinking Apple cider vinegar damage your esophagus?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, drinking ACV in undiluted form or in the improper ratio of dilution can damage the esophagus. Also not drinking enough water after taking ACV tablet may burn your throat and cause difficulty in swallowing. It may also aggravate stomach ulcers and worsen heartburn[7].

Q. Is Apple cider vinegar bad for the liver?

scientific
Modern Science View
There are no studies on the side effects of Apple cider vinegar on the liver. Rather Apple cider vinegar helps in detoxification and cleansing of the liver which helps in its healthy functioning.
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar in one glass of water.
2. Consume half an hour before taking food.
3. Repeat twice daily for better results.

Q. Can drinking Apple cider vinegar damage tooth enamel?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, drinking Apple cider vinegar in its undiluted form can erode the tooth enamel. This is due to its strong acidic nature which can further increase the risk of cavities[8][9].
Keep in mind the following tips if you are consuming Apple cider vinegar orally:
1. Take 1-2 teaspoons of Apple cider vinegar.
2. Mix it in one glass of water.
3. Sip it using a straw to minimize the acid’s contact with your teeth.
4. Avoid brushing your teeth soon after consuming Apple cider vinegar. This is because the enamel will be in a weaker state soon after coming in contact with Apple cider vinegar and brushing right away can erode the enamel.

Q. Is it safe to take Apple cider vinegar with citrus fruits?

scientific
Modern Science View
Avoid taking Apple cider vinegar with citrus fruits or juices (such as lemon, oranges) since both of them are acidic in nature. This might lead to hyperacidity or acid reflux.

Q. Is it safe to drink Apple cider vinegar after tea or coffee?

scientific
Modern Science View
Avoid taking Apple cider vinegar immediately after drinking tea or coffee as it might cause the milk in the beverages to curdle which might disturb the digestion process. This may cause stomach pain or vomiting.

Q. Is Apple cider vinegar beneficial for weight loss? How to use Apple cider vinegar for weight loss?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider vinegar might help in weight loss by controlling appetite and by increasing fat metabolism[14]. An animal study suggests that acetic acid present in Apple cider vinegar reduces fat accumulation by activating the fat burning enzyme AMPK in the liver. Also, ACV might slow the breakdown of starch to sugar and prevent fat accumulation in the body[6].
Tip:
1. Take 1 glass of water.
2. Add 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar to it.
3. Mix well and drink it just before meals[6].
4. Or, you can drink it on an empty stomach in the morning to reduce belly fat.
5. Repeat this process for 3 months to see a significant change in your waist size and abdominal fat.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
According to Ayurveda, an increase in weight can be due to Ama (toxic remains in the body due to improper digestion). Apple cider vinegar reduces Ama by increasing Pachak Agni (digestive fire). Thus Apple cider vinegar helps in weight loss.

Q. Can Apple cider vinegar whiten skin?

scientific
Modern Science View
Although it is said that Apple cider vinegar can help in clearing acne and mild blemishes to some extent but there is no evidence that it can lighten the skin color.

Q. How to use Apple cider vinegar for skin problems?

scientific
Modern Science View
Apple cider can be applied in the following ways:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar.
2. Add 3-4 teaspoons of fresh water to it and mix well.
3. Dip a cotton pad in the mixture and apply on to the face, neck, and hands.
4. Keep it for 3-4 minutes.
5. Rinse your face with cool plain water and pat dry.
6. Repeat it for 2-3 times a day for a clear and glowing skin[2].
7. You can also use rose water instead of plain water.

Q. Can you burn your skin with Apple cider vinegar?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, due to its strong acidic nature, Apple cider vinegar may burn and cause redness on your skin if applied undiluted[20][21].

Q. How to use Apple cider vinegar for hair?

scientific
Modern Science View
Tip:
1. Shampoo and condition your hair properly.
2. Add 1/4th cup of Apple cider vinegar in 1 mug of plain water.
3. Pour this mixture evenly on the hair and scalp.
4. Let it sit for 5 minutes.
5. Rinse it with plain water for healthy and shiny hair.
6. Repeat this once a week for at least a month to get rid of dandruff and for shiny hair.

References

  1. WebMD.Apple cider vinegar: Uses, Side effects, Interactions, Dosage [Internet] Atlanta [Updated in 2016].
  2. Vinegar: A Complete Guide to Nature's Most Remarkable Remedy.3rd edition.Kensington Publishing Corp.2009.",www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-816-APPLE+CIDER+VINEGAR,"Johnston CS, Steplewska I, Long CA, et al.Examination of the antiglycemic properties of vinegar in healthy adults.Ann Nutr Metab.2010;56(1):74-9.
  3. Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ.Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care.2004;(1):281-282.
  4. Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, et al.Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects.Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.2009;73(8):1837-1843.
  5. Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, et al.Esophageal injury by Apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products.J Am Diet Assoc.2005;105(7):1141-4.
  6. Gambon DL, Brand HS, Veerman EC.Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by Apple cider vinegar.Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd.2012;119(12):589-591.
  7. Willershausen I, Weyer V, Schulte D, et al.In vitro study on dental erosion caused by different vinegar varieties using an electron microprobe.Clin Lab.2014;60(5):783-90.
  8. González M, Rivas C, Caride B, et al.Effects of orange and apple pectin on cholesterol concentration in serum, liver and faeces.J Physiol Biochem. 1998;54(2):99-104.
  9. Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ.Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care 2004;27(1): 281-282.
  10. Beheshti Z, Chan YH, Nia HS, et al. Influence of Apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J. 2012;9(4):2431-2440.
  11. Budak NH, Kumbul Doguc D, Savas CM, et al. Effects of Apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:6638-44.
  12. Frost G, Sleeth ML, Sahuri-Arisoylu M, et al.The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.Nat Commun.2014.29;5:3611.
  13. White AM, Johnston CS.Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care.2007;30(11):2814-5.
  14. Sakakibara S1, Yamauchi T, Oshima Y, et al.Acetic acid activates hepatic AMPK and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344(2):597-604.
  15. Laranjinha, João AN, Almeida LM et al.Reactivity of dietary phenolic acids with peroxyl radicals: Antioxidant activity upon low density lipoprotein peroxidation.Biochemical pharmacology.1994;48(3): 487–494.
  16. Ulbricht CE.Natural Standard:Herb and Supplement Guide, An Evidence Based Reference.Elsevier;2010.
  17. Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.Nutr J. 2004;3:5.
  18. Bunick CG, Lott JP, Warren CB, et al.Chemical burn from topical Apple cider vinegar.JAAD.2012;67(4):143-144.
  19. Feldstein S, Afshar M, Krakowski AC.Chemical Bum from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi.J Clin Aesthet Dermatol.2015;8(6):50.
Disclaimer
The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.

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