Description of Hernia

Description of hernia
Hernia is defined as a condition in which a part of an organ is displaced from its usual place and protrudes through the wall of the cavity that contains it. Hernia can occur due to persistent communication (called processus vaginalis) between the belly and the scrotum. 
Different types of hernia include:
1. Inguinal/groin hernia: It develops in the groin and descends down to scrotum.
2. Incisional hernia: This develops due to weakness of incision site of previous surgery like cesarean section, hysterectomy, and appendectomy.
3. Femoral hernia: It is a rare hernia, more commonly seen in females. It is similar to an inguinal hernia and starts below the groin crease and then ascends up.
Signs and Symptoms of hernia
Common symptoms of hernia are:
1. Swelling appears on standing and disappears on lying down. It can persist also.
2. Abdominal pain
3. Vomiting
4. Inability to pass gas and stools
5. Urinary discomfort
6. Other complaints are:
a) Persistent cough
b) Straining to pass urine or stools
Causes and Risk Factors of hernia
1. In children, it may arise due to weakness of abdominal wall muscles
2. Strenuous work 
3. Weak abdominal wall muscles
4. Increasing age (hernial opening may increase with age)
Complications and When Should You See a Doctor
1. Normally, an uncomplicated hernia is reducible. However, in an irreducible hernia the contents get adherent to each other or the wall.
2. Obstructed hernia: It is an irreducible hernia where the lumen of the intestine is blocked. 
3. Strangulated hernia: It is an irreducible hernia in which the blood supply is obstructed. In this condition, the swelling is extremely tense and painful.
4. Inflamed hernia
5. Recurrence of the disease
Treatment of hernia
Medical treatment is usually preferred when the patient has complications. The common options include surgical treatment that includes:
a) Conventional surgery
b) Laparoscopic hernia repair: It offers less postoperative morbidity and also has been found to be advantageous for bilateral hernia, recurrent hernia after conventional surgery.
Content Details
Last updated on:
01 Feb 2018 | 12:56 PM (IST)
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