Chronic kidney disease

Description of Chronic kidney disease

Description of Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the loss of kidney function over the time. The gradual progression occurs over years and is eventually permanent if untreated. The destruction of the nephrons eventually leads to building up of toxins and water in the body leading to other complications. The condition is marked by premature deaths, lower quality of life, and increased medical expenses.
Causes and Risk Factors of Chronic kidney disease
Common causes are:
1. Hypertension
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Nephrotoxins
5. Hyperlipidemia
6. Polycystic kidney disease
7. Glomerulonephritis
Signs and Symptoms of Chronic kidney disease
Common symptoms are:
1. Generalized malaise, weakness, and fatigue
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Increased frequency of urination, especially at night -- nocturia
4. Fluid retention leading to edema
5. Shortness of breath
6. Loss of appetite
7. Confusion and lethargy
8. Skin is easily bruised, itchy, or pale
9. Bleeding
10. Fractures and bone pain
Complications and When Should You See a Doctor 
Complications may include:
1. Hypertension
2. Impaired cognitive function
3. Uremic encephalopathy
4. Peripheral neuropathy
5. Renal osteodystrophy
6. Arthropathy and bone pain
7. Fluid retention leading to hypertension and pulmonary edema
Treatment of Chronic kidney disease
1. Medications will include:
a) Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)
b) Diuretic medications
c) Erythropoiesis stimulating agents
d) Sodium bicarbonate
2. Renal replacement therapy
3. Surgical treatments include kidney transplantation
Prognosis and Prevention
1. CKD generally progresses to end-stage renal disease, but is undetected initially due to its gradual progression.
2. Chronic dialysis is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates.
3. Patients with underlying diabetes and hypertension should be aware of the higher risk of developing CKD.
4. Eat kidney healthy foods
5. Include moderate workout in your daily routine
In the early stages, there are no signs or symptoms and lab tests may be the only way to diagnose CKD.
1. Urine tests
2. 24-hour urine test
3. Blood test such as complete blood count (CBC)
4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
5. Creatinine levels
6. Kidney ultrasound
7. Biopsy
Content Details
Last updated on:
31 Jan 2018 | 01:10 PM (IST)
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