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Ayurvedic View By
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Honey

Honey
Honey is a viscous substance rich in a number of nutrients. In Ayurveda, it is called as “Perfection of Sweet”.
Honey is one of the best known home remedies for dry and wet cough. It can be taken along with some ginger juice and black pepper to help relieve cough and throat irritation. Having Honey in lukewarm water every morning improves digestion and helps manage weight. It is a good alternative to sugar and can be taken by diabetics due to its low glycemic index.
Honey can be applied on burns and wounds to help prevent infection and promote healing. This is due to its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. It can also nourish and soothe your skin in case of sunburn.
In some cases, consuming excessive Honey may lead to diarrhea. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should avoid taking raw Honey as it may contain certain contaminants that harm the developing baby and the mother[1][2][8][9][12][14][19][26].

What are the synonyms of Honey?

Apis mellifera, Shehad, Madhu, Thenu, Jenu, Modhu, Mou, Tene, Shaath, Madh, Mohu, Tiga, Mee Peni

What is the source of Honey?

Animal Based

Benefits of Honey

What are the benefits of Honey for Cough?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey has mucolytic property. It might provide relief from chest congestion by loosening thick mucus and helping you to cough it out[27].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Honey.
2. Add 2-3 drops of fresh ginger juice to it.
3. Have it twice a day for maximum relief.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps in balancing aggravated Kapha. As a result of which, it gives relief from chest congestion and cough.

What are the benefits of Honey for Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2)?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey is good for diabetes because it is a natural sweetener and helps reduce blood glucose levels. Honey also has a low glycemic index, as a result of which it does not increase the blood sugar as rapidly as white sugar. Another study states that Honey helps in improving serum insulin levels as well as lowers the insulin resistance[22].
Tip:
1. Replace your regular sugar with Honey.
2. It is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Honey if you are diabetic or taking any anti-diabetic drugs.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps to maintain normal blood sugar level as it improves the metabolism due to its Deepan (Appetizer) and Pachan (digestive) properties.

What are the benefits of Honey for High cholesterol?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey might lower high cholesterol levels due to its antioxidant property. The polyphenols present in Honey lowers the level of LDL (bad cholesterol) and improves HDL (good cholesterol). It can also prevent the oxidation of LDL thus reducing the level of LDL in the blood[24].
Tip:
1. Take 2 tablespoons of Honey and add 3 teaspoons of Cinnamon powder to it.
2. Mix well and take 1 teaspoon of the mixture twice a day after meals.
3. Repeat this for at least 1-2 months for better results.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps to control high cholesterol level by improving metabolism due to its Deepan (Appetizer) Pachan (digestive) properties.

What are the benefits of Honey for Diarrhea?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey might be good in case of diarrhea due to its antibacterial property. A study states that Honey can inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria causing diarrhea such as S.aureus and C.albicans thus reducing the duration of bacterial diarrhea[25].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Honey.
2. Add 1 tablespoon curd to it. Mix well.
3. Take it twice a day.

What are the benefits of Honey for Diabetic foot ulcers?

scientific
Modern Science View
The antioxidants present in Honey might lower the risk of cell damage such as foot ulcers in case of diabetes. Studies state that Honey might also reduce inflammation at the wound site and aid in the healing process[26].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps in case of ulcer due to its healing property. It also prevents cell damage because of its Rasayana (Rejuvenating) nature.

What are the benefits of Honey for Infertility?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey might help improve fertility in both men and women by promoting a feeling of rejuvenation and youthful virility[28].
Tip:
Take 1-2 teaspoons of Honey with 1 glass of milk daily at night before going to bed.

What are the benefits of Honey for Hay fever?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey might reduce the symptoms of hay fever as a result of a process called immunotherapy. Studies state that local Honey contains traces of pollen grains and eating it regularly could make the person immune to pollen. This process of immunotherapy, in turn, would ease the symptoms of hay fever like runny and itchy nose, itchy eyes etc[23].
Tip:
1. Take 2-3 teaspoon of local Honey.
2. You can either swallow it alone or mix it with your tea or a glass of warm water.
3. Repeat this twice a day for effective results.

How effective is Honey?

Likely effective
Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2)
Insufficient evidence
Asthma, Athletic performance, Cough, Diabetic foot ulcers, Diarrhea, Fournier’s gangrene, Hay fever, High cholesterol, Infections, Infertility, Nutritional deficiencies, Stomach ulcers

Precautions when using Honey

Advice from Experts
scientific
Modern Science View
1. Honey contains an excess amount of fructose which may lead to incomplete fructose absorption leading to diarrhea[9].
2. Due to its acidic nature, Honey may erode the dental enamel if kept in the mouth for a prolonged period of time[9].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
1. Avoid taking a high dose of Honey as it can cause nausea, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea. This is due to its Guru (heavy) nature.
2. Avoid Honey with Ghee as it imbalances the Vatta, Pitta and Kapha Doshas.
3. Honey, when boiled, causes harmful chemical changes. Do not boil or mix Honey with boiling hot water or milk.
4. Avoid Honey with Radish (mooli) as this combination can be toxic.
Allergy
scientific
Modern Science View
Avoid Honey if you are allergic or hypersensitive to Honey, its constituents, celery or other bee-related allergens[9].
Breastfeeding
scientific
Modern Science View
Honey may contain contaminants like C.botulinum and grayanotoxins that might be harmful to the baby. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Honey if you are breastfeeding[8][9].
Patients with diabetes
scientific
Modern Science View
Honey is known to lower blood glucose level. But it contains sugars like glucose and fructose that can increase the blood sugar levels if consumed in higher doses. So it is generally advised to monitor the blood glucose level or consult your doctor if you are diabetic or taking anti-diabetic drugs[9].
Patients with heart disease
scientific
Modern Science View
Honey may lower blood pressure. So it is generally advised to monitor the blood pressure regularly if you are taking Honey along with other antihypertensive drugs[9].
Pregnancy
scientific
Modern Science View
Honey may contain contaminants like C.botulinum and grayanotoxins that might be harmful to the pregnant woman and the growing fetus. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor before taking Honey during pregnancy[8][9].

Recommended Dosage of Honey

  • Honey Gel - 1-2 teaspoons once a day.

How to use Honey

1. Honey in Milk
a. Take one glass of lukewarm milk.
b. Add 1-2 teaspoons of Honey.
c. Drink it preferably at night for good health.

2. Honey in Luke Warm Water
a. Take 1 glass of lukewarm water.
b. Add 1-2 teaspoon of Honey and mix well.
c. Drink it preferably on an empty stomach in the morning for better digestion.

3. Honey in Ginger Juice
a. Take 1 teaspoon of Ginger juice.
b. Add 1-2 teaspoon of Honey to it.
c. Take once in the morning and once before going to bed at night to get rid of a sore throat and cough[5].

4. Honey-Lemon Water
a. Take 1 glass of lukewarm water.
b. Squeeze ½ Lemon to it.
c. Now add 1-2 teaspoons of Honey and mix well.
d. Drink it preferably on an empty stomach in the morning to manage cholesterol level, speed up the metabolism and aid weight loss[12].

Benefits of Honey

What are the benefits of Honey for Burns?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey, when applied on minor burns, might accelerate the healing process due to its antioxidant property. Honey has an antibacterial property which helps in reducing the risk of infection at the site of burn. It is also hygroscopic in nature and provides a moist environment required for rapid healing of burn[2][14].
Tip:
1. Apply gently on the affected area and do not rub.
2. Keep for 1-2 hours and then wash with cool water.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey balances Pitta and Kapha and promotes quick healing in case of a minor burn. It also gives a soothing effect due to its Sita (cold) property.

What are the benefits of Honey for Sunburn?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey might soothe and repair the skin in case of sunburn due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It also helps in moisturizing the skin due to its hygroscopic property[2][19].
Tip:
1. Take the required amount of Honey.
2. Mix 1-2 tablespoon of Aloe vera gel or as per your requirement.
3. Apply this paste on the affected area.
4. Repeat once daily for better results.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey might give some relief from sunburn due to its cooling property.

What are the benefits of Honey for Skin regeneration?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey helps in speeding up the healing of minor wounds due to its antioxidant property. Honey also has antibacterial property which helps in reducing the risk of infection at the site of the wound[14].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey is a good wound healing agent due to its Kashaya (astringent) property.

What are the benefits of Honey for Piles?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey reduces the pain associated with piles. Honey has anti-inflammatory property and reduces the effect of pain mediators at the site of application. Honey also has antibacterial property and inhibits bacterial growth. This reduces the risk of infections from piles[17].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon Honey, olive oil and beeswax in 1:1:1 ratio.
2. Mix well and apply it directly on the area to get relief from piles.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps in lowering pain and swelling in hemorrhoid due to its Sita (cold) and healing properties.

What are the benefits of Honey for Inflammation of gums?

scientific
Modern Science View
Inflammation of gums is called Gingivitis that occurs when bacteria starts building-up in the form of plaque on the teeth. This causes swelling in the gums. A study states that Honey has antibacterial property that controls the buildup of bacterial plaque on the teeth. Another study suggests that Honey has anti-inflammatory property which reduces inflammation of the gums and lowers the risk of gingivitis[15][16].
Tip:
1. Take 1 tablespoon of Honey.
2. Add it to 1 glass of warm water.
3. Gargle with this mixture twice a day.
4. Repeat twice a day for better results.

What are the benefits of Honey for Herpes labialis?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey has antiviral property and may inhibit the activity of herpes simplex virus in cold sores. Honey also has anti-inflammatory property and reduces the effect of pain mediators at the site of application[18].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon Honey and a pinch of Turmeric powder.
2. Mix both and apply as a paste to the cold sore.
3. Repeat as often as necessary for better results.

How effective is Honey?

Likely effective
Burns, Mouth ulcers, Skin regeneration
Likely ineffective
Skin infection due to Kala-azar
Insufficient evidence
Allergic conditions, Cataract, Eye surgery, Herpes labialis, Inflammation of gums, Itching, Piles, Sunburn

Precautions when using Honey

Allergy
scientific
Modern Science View
Apply a small quantity of Honey on the skin and check for any reaction. In case, the skin becomes red or any rashes develop, immediately wash with cool water.

Recommended Dosage of Honey

  • Honey Gel - 2-4 teaspoons or as per your requirement.

How to use Honey

1. Honey with Milk
a. Take 1-2 teaspoon of Honey.
b. Add 1-2 teaspoons of milk to it and form a paste.
c. Apply this mixture on the skin for 5-6 minutes and wash with tap water.
d. Use this remedy 2-3 times a week to get rid of dry skin.

2. Honey with Multani mitti
a. Take 2 teaspoons of Multani mitti.
b. Add 2 teaspoon of Honey and rose water to it.
c. Mix evenly to form a paste.
d. Apply on the face, neck and hands and leave for 5-6 minutes.
e. Wash well with tap water.
e. Use this remedy 2-3 times a week for acne free, soft and glowing skin[11].

3. Honey and Curd Conditioner
a. Take ½ cup curd.
b. Add 3-4 teaspoons of Honey to it.
c. Apply on the hair and keep for 40-45 minutes.
d. Rinse with tap water.
d. Use it once a week for smooth and shiny hair.

4. Honey as Wound Healer
Apply Honey on minor wounds for its quick healing and anti-inflammatory properties[2].

Frequently asked questions

Q. Which are the most popular brands of Honey available in India?

scientific
Modern Science View
The most popular brands of Honey available in India are:
1. Patanjali
2. Beez
3. Himalaya
4. Baidyanath
5. Hitkari
6. Zandu Pure
7. Dabur

Q. What are the benefits of drinking Lemon Honey water?

scientific
Modern Science View
Studies suggest that drinking a glass of warm water with Lemon juice and Honey helps to reduce the level of cholesterol and helps manage weight.
Lemon is a rich source of vitamin C which is associated with improving the level of HDL or good cholesterol. Also, Honey is found to have LDL or bad cholesterol lowering property in normal and hyperlipidemic participants. Together it helps reduce the level of LDL and improve HDL.
Honey is also known to have antioxidant property which helps manage weight[12].

Tip:
1. Take 1 glass of lukewarm water.
2. Squeeze ½ Lemon to it.
3. Now add 1-2 teaspoons of Honey and mix well.
4. Drink it preferably on an empty stomach in the morning.


Q. What is Manuka Honey and what are its benefits?

scientific
Modern Science View
Manuka Honey is the purest form of Honey and it helps in:
1. Reducing high cholesterol
2. Reducing systemic inflammation
3. Managing diabetes
4. Managing eye, ear and sinus infections
5. Managing gastrointestinal problems
6. Treating minor wounds and burns

Q. What is the price of Honey in India?

scientific
Modern Science View
Since Honey is marketed by different brands and has its own values, the price usually depends on the quality and quantity. It ranges from (Rs 50-70) for a 100 gm pack.

Q. Organic Honey vs Raw Honey which is better?

scientific
Modern Science View
Organic Honey is said to be better than raw Honey as it meets the organic livestock standards:

1. Organic Honey: It is a type of Honey which is obtained from bees which collects nectar from the flowers on which no chemicals have been sprayed. Also, the beehives are located far away from any chemicals.

2. Raw Honey: A type of Honey collected directly from a beehive. The Honey undergoes a process of extraction, settling and straining.

Q. How many calories are present in 1 tablespoon of Honey?

scientific
Modern Science View
There are approximately 64 calories in 1 tablespoon of Honey.

Q. Is Honey good for weight loss?

scientific
Modern Science View
Although enough research has not been done, Honey might help in managing weight by lowering serum lipid levels[6].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Honey.
2. Add it to 1 glass of lukewarm water.
3. Squeeze half a lemon to it.
4. Mix well and drink it as the first thing in the morning on an empty stomach.
5. Repeat this daily for at least 2-3 months for better results.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
An increase in weight might be due to an aggravated Kapha and accumulation of Ama (half-digested and unmetabolized food) in the body. Honey helps in balancing aggravated Kapha and reduces Ama by improving metabolism.

Q. Can Honey cause allergy?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, Honey can cause allergy if you are allergic to pollen. During the collection of Honey, sometimes pollen grains might remain in the Honey which may cause allergic reactions[8].

Q. Can you eat too much Honey?

scientific
Modern Science View
Although enough research has not been done, Honey should be consumed in small quantities. This is due to its high fructose content which can interfere with small intestine thereby decreasing the ability to absorb nutrients.

Q. Is raw Honey safe to eat?

scientific
Modern Science View
Raw honey might be safe for healthy adults, but it can be dangerous for infants and pregnant women. It may contain certain harmful bacteria and contaminants which are harmful for the developing baby and the mother both. Also few cases of pollen allergies and grayanotoxin poisoning or mad honey disease have been reported due to the consumption of raw honey. Therefore, it is advisable to check the sample before consumption[29].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Raw Honey is safe for healthy adults as it is has Rasayana (rejuvenating) and Tridosha balancing properties. Even though it is very beneficial for everyone, it should be avoided in case of infants and pregnant women.

Q. Does Honey strengthen the immune system?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, honey might strengthen the immune system as it contains powerful antioxidants, prevents cell damage and protects one from lifestyle disorders and even cancer. It prevents allergies and contains healing properties thereby making the cells more active and healthy. Furthermore, Honey induces the release of certain chemicals that help regulate immunity.
Tip: Honey should be consumed in moderate amount as it contains high fructose content that might decrease the ability of the intestines to absorb nutrients[30].
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey has Rasayana (rejuvenating) property due to which it works very effectively in boosting up your immunity level and maintaining your immune system.

Q. Is Honey good for face?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey is said to be good for the face due to its antioxidant property. It prevents cell damage and reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Honey is also hygroscopic in nature and helps in moisturizing the skin[2][3].
Tips:
1. Take 1 tablespoon of Honey and apply on clean and dry skin.
2. Leave it for 15-20 minutes.
3. Rinse with cool water and pat dry.
Or you can also choose one of the following masks:
1. Honey and Lemon mask
2. Banana and Honey mask
3. Aloe vera and Honey mask
4. Milk and Honey mask
5. Yogurt and Honey mask

Q. Is Honey good for hair?

scientific
Modern Science View
Yes, Honey is good for hair due to its antioxidant property. It prevents damage of hair due to prolonged exposure to sun or any harsh chemicals by destroying free radicals. It also acts as a good nourishing conditioner due to its moisturizing property[20].
Tip:
1. Take 1 tablespoon of Honey.
2. Add it to 1 small bowl of curd.
3. Mix well and apply on the hair and roots.
4. Keep it for 1 hour and rinse well with a mild shampoo.
5. Repeat this once or twice a week for better results.
6. You can replace curd with Egg or Aloe vera.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Honey helps in controlling hair fall and promote the growth of new hair due to its rejuvenating property.

Q. Is Honey good for acne?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey is used in case of acne due to its antibacterial property. It reduces the growth and activity of acne-causing bacteria. Honey also has anti-inflammatory property and reduces the redness and pain around acne[11][21].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon of Honey.
2. Add 2-3 drops of rose water.
3. Mix well and dab this mixture on the acne (do not rub).
4. Keep it for 10-15 minutes.
5. Wash with cold water and pat dry.
ayurvedic
Ayurvedic View
Acne is caused due to an aggravated Pitta. Honey balances aggravated Pitta when applied on the skin and thus helps in controlling acne.

Q. What are the benefits of Lemon and Honey for face?

scientific
Modern Science View
Honey and Lemon are rich sources of antioxidants. Together it prevents cell damage and reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles on the face. Lemon is also a good source of vitamin C and helps fade blemishes. Honey, on the other hand, is hygroscopic in nature and helps moisturize the face making it feel soft[2][3][12].
Tip:
1. Take 1 teaspoon Honey in a bowl.
2. Add 3-4 drops of fresh Lemon juice.
3. Mix well and apply on a clean and dry face.
4. Keep for 15-20 minutes and wash off with cool water.
5. Repeat daily for a soft and clear face.

References

  1. Samarghandian S, Farkhondeh T, Samini F.Honey and health: A review of recent clinical research.Pharmacognosy Res.2017;9(2):121-127.
  2. Mandal MD, Mandal S.Honey: Its medicinal property and antibacterial activity.Asian Pac J Trop Biomed.2011;1(2):154-160.
  3. Ahmed S, Sulaiman SA, Baig AA.Honey as a potential natural antioxidant medicine: an insight into its molecular mechanisms of action.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2018;2018:19.
  4. Oskouei ET, Najafi M. Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: A review.Iran J Basic Med Sci.2013;16(6):731–742.
  5. Barker SJ.Honey for acute cough in children.Paediatr Child Health.2016;21(4):199-200.
  6. Yaghoobi N, Al-Waili N, Mobarhan GM.Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose.Scientific World Journal.2008;8:463-469.
  7. Ladas SD, Haritos DN, Raptis SA.Honey may have a laxative effect on normal subjects because of incomplete fructose absorption.Am J Clin Nutr.1995;62(6):1212-5.
  8. WebMD.Honey: Uses, Side effects, Doses, Interactions [Internet].Atlanta [last updated in 2016].
  9. Ulbricht CE.Natural Standard:Herb and Supplement Guide, An Evidence Based Reference.Elsevier;2010.
  10. Koenig T, Cramer Roh JL.Healing wounds with honey.URJHS 2016;15:1-2.
  11. Eady EA, Layton AM, Cove JH.A honey trap for the treatment of acne: manipulating the follicular microenvironment to control Propionibacterium acnes.Biomed Res Int.2013; 2013:679680.
  12. Shetty P, Mooventhan A, Nagendra HR.Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2016:7(1):11–13.
  13. Bahrami M,Ataie-Jafari A, Hosseini S.Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial.Int J Food Sci Nutr.2009;60(7):618-626.
  14. Subrahmanyam M.Topical application of honey for burn wound treatment - An overview.Ann Burns Fire Disasters. 2007;20(3): 137–139.
  15. Atwa AD, AbuShahba RY, Mostafa M.Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.Saudi Dent J. 2014; 26(3): 108–114.
  16. Singhal R, Siddibhavi M, Sankeshwari R.Effectiveness of three mouthwashes – manuka honey, raw honey, and chlorhexidine on plaque and gingival scores of 12–15-year-old school children: a randomized controlled field trial.J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2018;22(1): 34–39.
  17. Al-Waili NS, Saloom KS, Al-Waili TN, et al.The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: A pilot study.The Scientific World Journal.2006;6:1998–2005.
  18. Al-Waili NS.Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit.2004;10(8):94-98.
  19. Sirisinghe RG, Halim AS, Ravichandran M, et al.Honey and medicine: Past, present and future.Malays J Med Sci.2007;14(1):101–127.
  20. Al-Waili NS.Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of crude honey on chronic seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff.Eur J Med Res. 2001.30;6(7):306-8.
  21. McLoone P, Oluwadun A,Warnock M.Honey: A therapeutic agent for disorders of the skin.Cent Asian J Glob Health.2016;5(1):241.
  22. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MSA.Honey - A novel antidiabetic agent.Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8(6):913–934.
  23. Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad MZ, Jihan WS.Ingestion of honey improves the symptoms of allergic rhinitis: Evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia.Ann Saudi Med.201;33(5):469-75.
  24. Münstedt K, Hoffmann S, Hauenschild A.Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.J Med Food.2009;12(3):624-8.
  25. Honey: Its antibacterial action in the treatment of gastroenteritis.Glimpse. 1985;7(6):1-8
  26. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH.Honey: A potential therapeutic agent for managing diabetic wounds.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2014:169130.
  27. Goldman RD.Honey for treatment of cough in children.Can Fam Physician. 2014 Dec; 60(12): 1107–1110.
  28. Bakhru HK.Foods That Heal:The Natural Way To Good Health.Orient Paperbacks.2014
  29. Jansen SA, Kleerekooper I, Hofman ZL et al.Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.Cardiovasc Toxicol.2012;12(3):208–215.
  30. Yaghoobi R, Kazerouni A, Kazerouni O.Evidence for clinical use of honey in wound healing as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory anti-oxidant and anti-viral agent: A review.Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod.2013;8:100–4.
Disclaimer
The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.

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