Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report in Greater Noida
Understanding Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report in Greater Noida
What is Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report in Greater Noida?
A Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report offers a comprehensive health assessment for senior citizens at an affordable price in Greater Noida with Tata 1mg labs. It is done as part of routine health checkups to assess their overall health status. This package gives clues about potential disorders and deficiencies, enabling your doctor to provide recommendations for lifestyle modifications or medications to manage your condition and formulate an overall treatment plan.
A Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report includes a total of 60 tests that check your liver function, kidney health, blood sugar, thyroid profile, lipid profile, blood counts, and more. This package includes all the goodness of the Senior Citizen Basic Package with the addition of a rheumatoid arthritis test, such as rheumatoid factor, and an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide test.
What does Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report measure?Contains 60 tests
Frequent health checkups regularly after a certain age can help understand the possible onset of medical conditions. Adults over the age of 60 years get lower levels of nutrition and may face health issues. Therefore, older adults need more attention as well as regular medical checkups to prolong their lives.
A Senior Citizen Advanced Package with Smart Report offers tests like a diabetes screening test, an iron test, a calcium test, a rheumatoid arthritis test, an anti-CCP antibody test, a liver function test, a thyroid profile, a lipid profile, a kidney function test, and a complete blood count test. Based on the test results, doctors can detect health issues and may provide a proper diagnosis and a treatment plan.
A Serum Calcium test measures the levels of calcium in the body. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body; most of it is present in the bones and teeth, and the remaining portion (around 1%) is found in the blood. It is usually present in two forms in blood in about equal amounts: "bound calcium," which is attached to proteins in the blood, and "free calcium or ionized calcium," which is not attached to any protein.
A Serum Calcium test cannot be used to check for lack of calcium in your diet or osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bones) as the body can have normal calcium levels even in dietary calcium deficiency. Moreover, the body can normalize mild calcium deficiency by releasing the calcium stored in bones.
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HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)
An HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c) test precisely measures the percentage of sugar-coated or glycated hemoglobin in your blood. The test results represent the proportion of hemoglobin in your blood that has been glycated.
Hemoglobin, a vital protein found in red blood cells, is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin A is the most abundant form of hemoglobin, and when blood sugar levels increase, a higher proportion of hemoglobin A becomes glycated. As red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately 120 days, the sugar molecules remain attached to the hemoglobin for the duration of the cell's life. Consequently, the HbA1c test offers insight into your average blood sugar levels over the past 8 to 12 weeks.
Average Glucose (For last 60 - 90 days)
Serum Iron Studies Basic
A Serum Iron Studies Basic test measures the level of iron in the body. It comprises a series of blood tests, including a serum iron test that measures the level of iron in the blood, a Total Iron-Binding Capacity (TIBC) test that reflects the body's iron stores, an unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) test that reflects binding of iron with transferrin which is the main protein that binds with iron, and transferrin saturation test that checks how much transferrin is saturated with iron.
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Total Iron Binding Capacity
A Total Iron Binding Capacity test measures the ability of your blood to bind and transport iron, and therefore reflects your body's iron stores. TIBC correlates with the amount of transferrin, a protein, in your blood, that helps bind iron and facilitates its transportation in the blood. Usually, about one-third of the transferrin measured is being used to transport iron, and this is called transferrin saturation.
An Iron Serum test determines iron levels in the blood and can help diagnose conditions like anemia, or iron overload in the body. People usually suffer from low iron levels in the blood if they prefer a diet that has low iron content, or if their body has trouble absorbing the iron from the foods or supplements they intake. Low iron levels can also occur due to intense blood loss or even during pregnancy. Similarly, an excess amount of iron in the blood can occur due to over-intake of iron supplements, blood transfusions, or if you are suffering from a condition called hemochromatosis (a rare genetic disorder that causes too much iron to build up in the body or cause problems in the body to remove excess iron).
Therefore, doctors often suggest an Iron Serum to help check the status of your iron level, get valuable information about your nutritional well-being, detect potential health issues (if any), and take timely preventive measures.
Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity
An Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity test determines the reserve capacity of transferrin, i.e., the portion not yet saturated with iron. The iron-binding capacity of our body can be segregated into two parts – Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC). UIBC refers to the capacity of transferrin, a protein that transports iron, to bind with additional iron. In easy terms, it represents the available "slots" on transferrin to carry iron molecules. Unlike iron saturation, which assesses the occupied slots, UIBC measures the unoccupied ones.
A Transferrin Saturation test determines an individual’s iron status by using the ratio of serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) as a percentage. The test tells us how much iron in the blood is bound to transferrin, the main protein in the blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body. Under normal conditions, transferrin is one-third saturated with iron, so about two-thirds of its capacity is held in reserve. This test is often employed alongside others to evaluate iron levels and diagnose conditions like iron deficiency anemia, if transferrin saturation is low, or hemochromatosis (an iron overload disorder), if transferrin saturation is on the higher side than normal.
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
An ESR test measures the rate at which red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle (sediment) in one hour at the bottom of a tube that contains a blood sample.
When there is inflammation in the body, certain proteins, mainly fibrinogen, increase in the blood. This increased amount of fibrinogen causes the red blood cells to form a stack (rouleaux formation) that settles quickly due to its high density, leading to an increase in the ESR.
An ESR test is a non-specific measure of inflammation and can be affected by conditions other than inflammation. This test cannot identify the exact location of the inflammation in your body or what is causing it. Hence, an ESR test is usually performed along with a few other tests to identify or treat possible health concerns.
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CBC (Complete Blood Count)
A CBC (Complete Blood Count) test evaluates red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs}, and platelets. Each of these blood cells performs essential functions–RBCs carry oxygen from your lungs to the various body parts, WBCs help fight infections and other diseases, and platelets help your blood to clot–so determining their levels can provide significant health information. A CBC test also determines the hemoglobin level, a protein in RBC that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your body. Evaluating all these components together can provide important information about your overall health.
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Absolute Lymphocyte Count
T lymphocytes (T cells): T cells control your body’s immune system response and directly attack and kill infected cells and tumor cells.
B lymphocytes (B cells): B cells make antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that target viruses, bacteria, and other foreign pathogens.
An Absolute Lymphocyte Count test measures the total number of lymphocytes in the blood. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that play an important role in your immune system and help your body fight disease and infection. There are two main types of lymphocytes:
Lymphocytes help your immune system remember every antigen (a foreign substance) it comes in contact with. After an encounter, some lymphocytes turn into memory cells. When these memory cells run into an antigen again, they recognize it and quickly respond. It is also the reason why getting vaccinated helps prevent certain diseases.
Absolute Neutrophil Count
An Absolute Neutrophil Count test measures the percentage of neutrophils per microliter of blood. Neutrophils are a type of WBC and play an integral part in the body's immune system. They help fight off bacterial infections in the body by identifying and destroying foreign invaders, such as disease-causing microorganisms.
Differential Leukocyte Count
- Differential Neutrophil Count
- Differential Lymphocyte Count
- Differential Monocyte Count
- Differential Eosinophil Count
- Differential Basophil Count
There are five types of WBCs: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. A Differential Leukocyte Count test measures the percentage of each type of WBC in the blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.
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Red Blood Cell Count
A Red Blood Cell Count test measures the total number of red blood cells in your blood. RBCs are the most abundant cells in the blood with an average lifespan of 120 days. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and destroyed in the spleen or liver. Their primary function is to help carry oxygen from the lungs to different body parts. The normal range of RBC count can vary depending on age, gender, and the equipment and methods used for testing.
An Hb (Hemoglobin) test measures the concentration of hemoglobin protein in your blood. Hemoglobin is made up of iron and globulin proteins. It is an essential part of RBCs and is critical for oxygen transfer from the lungs to all body tissues. Most blood cells, including RBCs, are produced regularly in your bone marrow. The Hb test is a fundamental part of a complete blood count (CBC) and is used to monitor blood health, diagnose various blood disorders, and assess your response to treatments if needed.
A Platelet Count test measures the average number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days.
Platelets help stop the bleeding, whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel, by adhering and accumulating at the injury site and releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. A loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps, including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this step, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding.
Total Leukocyte Count
A Total Leukocyte Count test measures the numbers of all types of leukocytes, namely neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil, in your blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are an essential part of our immune system. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.
Absolute Basophil Count
An Absolute Basophil Count test measures the total number of basophils in the blood. Basophils are small, spherically-shaped cells that originate from bone marrow and make up almost 1% of the total white blood cells in the body. They attack a foreign substance and release proteins like histamine and heparin to destroy harmful substances, such as allergens, pathogens, or parasites. Histamine helps widen the blood vessels and make space for more immune cells to come to the site of infection or injury, whereas heparin acts as a blood-thinning agent and helps to avoid blood clotting at that site.
Absolute Monocyte Count
An Absolute Monocyte Count test measures the total number of monocytes in the blood. Monocytes are a type of WBC that originate from bone marrow and travel to different tissues via the blood. Once they are inside the tissue, these cells get converted to macrophages (a type of cell that digest harmful substances). Monocytes are the second line of defense mechanism of the human body after neutrophils. These cells are also responsible for the removal of injured or dead cells, microorganisms, and other insoluble particles from the blood.
Absolute Eosinophil Count
An Absolute Eosinophil Count test measures the number of eosinophils in the blood and provides important information about the functioning of the immune system. Eosinophils originate from bone marrow and have a lifespan of 8-18 hours. These cells are involved in fighting certain types of infections and responding to allergic reactions in the body. The eosinophils have varied functions including the physiological role in organ formation, such as the development of post-gestational mammary glands. Other functions of these cells include movement to the inflammation areas, trapping substances, killing cells, and bactericidal and antiparasitic activities. They also help in the treatment of immediate allergic reactions and modulation of inflammatory responses. By measuring the number of eosinophils in the blood, this test provides important information about the functioning of the immune system.
A Hematocrit test measures the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood as a percentage of the total blood volume. It is a crucial part of a complete blood count (CBC) and helps in assessing your blood health. RBCs are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to different parts of the body. The hematocrit test provides valuable information about your blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.
Higher-than-normal amounts of RBCs produced by the bone marrow can cause the hematocrit to increase, leading to increased blood density and slow blood flow. On the other hand, lower-than-normal hematocrit can be caused by low production of RBCs, reduced lifespan of RBCs in circulation, or excessive bleeding, leading to a reduced amount of oxygen being transported by RBCs. Monitoring your hematocrit levels is essential for diagnosing and managing various blood-related disorders.
Mean Corpuscular Volume
A Mean Corpuscular Volume test measures the average size of your red blood cells, which carry oxygen through your body. This test tells whether your RBCs are uniform or vary significantly in size.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
An MCH test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell (RBC). Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein in RBCs, and its major function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all body parts. This test provides information about how much oxygen is being delivered to the body by a certain number of RBCs.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
An MCHC test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of RBCs. MCHC is calculated by dividing the amount of hemoglobin by hematocrit (volume of blood made up of RBCs) and then multiplying it by 100.
Mean Platelet Volume
An MPV test measures the average size of the platelets in your blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days.
Platelets help stop bleeding whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel by adhering and accumulating at the injury site, and by releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. After these steps, a loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury, and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or are not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding.
A PDW test reflects variability in platelet size, and is considered a marker of platelet function and activation (clot formation in case of an injury). This marker can give you additional information about your platelets and the cause of a high or low platelet count. Larger platelets are usually younger platelets that have been recently released from the bone marrow, while smaller platelets may be older and have been in circulation for a few days. Higher PDW values reflect a larger range of platelet size, which may result from increased activation, destruction and consumption of platelets.
An RDW CV test which is part of red cell indices, helps identify characteristics of red blood cells. RDW (red cell distribution width) measures the variations in the sizes of red blood cells, indicating how much they differ from each other in a blood sample. RDW is expressed as RDW-CV, a coefficient of variation. A higher RDW may suggest more variation in red cell sizes, while a lower RDW indicates more uniform red cell sizes.
FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)
A fasting blood sugar test measures the glucose level in the body under overnight fasting conditions. Glucose serves as the body's energy currency and is broken down through metabolism to produce energy. Hormones and enzymes produced by the liver and pancreas control this process. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose levels. When these levels are high, such as after a meal, insulin is secreted to transport glucose into cells for energy production. Elevated glucose levels in the body after fasting may indicate a risk of developing prediabetes or diabetes, which can be of two types- Type 1, caused by little or no insulin production, and Type 2, caused by insulin resistance or decreased insulin production.
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A Lipid Profile assesses the level of specific fat molecules called lipids in the blood and helps determine the risk of heart ailments. This test determines the amount of different types of lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Lipids play a pivotal role in the functioning of the body. They are crucial components of the cell membranes and hormones, provide cushioning, and are a storehouse of energy. Any alterations in the lipid levels may lead to potential heart ailments, making their monitoring crucial.
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Cholesterol - LDL
A Cholesterol - LDL test measures the concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol plays an important role in your body. It carries cholesterol from your liver to other parts of the body where it's needed for things like building cell walls and making hormones. However, it is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because when present in excess in your blood, it can stick to your blood vessel walls leading to the formation of plaque, making them narrow and less flexible. When this happens, it's harder for the blood to flow, which can lead to heart problems, like heart attacks and strokes. By measuring LDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and can recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.
A Triglycerides test measures the amount of triglycerides in the blood and helps evaluate your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) that your body uses as a source of energy. When you consume more calories than your body needs, the excess calories are converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells for later use. High triglyceride levels can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other related conditions.
Cholesterol - Total
A Cholesterol - Total test measures the total amount of cholesterol (fats) in your blood. Cholesterol is mainly synthesized in the liver and partially in the intestines. It acts as a building block for cell membranes, serves as a precursor to vital hormones, and helps in the production of bile acids that help digest fats. Cholesterol is transported through the blood by two kinds of proteins: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An optimal amount of these proteins is necessary for proper body functioning.
Cholesterol - HDL
A Cholesterol - HDL test measures the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood. HDL cholesterol plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular health, as it helps transport excess low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from the bloodstream back to the liver for excretion. This process prevents the buildup of plaque on the blood vessel walls, which can cause them to become narrow and less flexible. Higher levels of HDL cholesterol are generally associated with a lower risk of heart problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. By measuring HDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and can recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, including lifestyle modifications and medications.
Very Low Density Lipoprotein
A Very Low Density Lipoprotein test measures the concentration of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in the blood. VLDL cholesterol plays a vital role in the body's metabolic processes. It is produced by the liver and is used to transport triglycerides, a type of fat, from the liver to various tissues throughout the body, where they are either utilized for energy or stored for later use. Though VLDL cholesterol is essential for the body's normal functioning, it is harmful if present in excess amounts. By measuring VLDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.
Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio
A Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio measures the ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/good cholesterol in your blood which is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. This ratio is calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL number. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.
An LDL/HDL Ratio test measures the ratio of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in your blood. These two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body. LDL, often referred to as the 'bad' cholesterol, carries cholesterol to the cells that need it. However, if there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can combine with other substances and form plaque in the arteries, leading to cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, HDL, often referred to as the 'good' cholesterol, helps remove other forms of cholesterol, including LDL, from the bloodstream. It transports cholesterol back to the liver, where it is broken down and eliminated from the body, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol buildup and heart disease. The LDL/HDL ratio is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.
Non HDL Cholesterol
A Non HDL Cholesterol test looks for the “bad” cholesterol particles that are likely to contribute to heart problems. These bad particles include LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and remnants of other cholesterol-carrying molecules. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that circulates in your bloodstream and is essential for various bodily functions. However, too much of “bad” types of cholesterol can build up in your arteries and increase the risk of heart conditions. LDL and VLDL cholesterol particles are often referred to as the "bad" cholesterol because they can stick to the walls of your arteries and form plaque, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow to your heart. By measuring non-HDL cholesterol, your doctor can assess your risk of heart disease and determine if any interventions or lifestyle changes are needed to protect your heart.
Rheumatoid Factor - Quantitative
A Rheumatoid Factor - Quantitative test detects and measures the concentration of rheumatoid factor (RF), an antibody produced by the immune system, in your blood. Increased levels of rheumatoid factor can be detected in the blood in certain autoimmune conditions, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. However, an RF test is not very specific as a rheumatoid factor can also be found in the body in diseases other than RA, such as Sjögren’s syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RF may also be produced in the body during persistent bacterial and viral infections. Hence, clinical evaluation and other diagnostic tests are crucial for a comprehensive assessment and accurate diagnosis.
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An Anti-CCP Antibody test measures the presence of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP) in the blood. These antibodies are collectively referred to as anti-CCP antibodies. Citrullination is a process where the amino acid arginine is converted to citrulline. In autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the immune system may mistakenly identify citrullinated peptides as foreign invaders and produce antibodies against them.
Anti-CCP antibodies are considered one of the early markers of rheumatoid arthritis. They contribute to the chronic inflammation and joint damage characteristic of RA. Their presence in the blood can aid in the early diagnosis of RA, establish a prognosis for disease progression, and allow timely intervention and management.
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LFT (Liver Function Test)
An LFT (Liver Function Test) helps determine the health of your liver by measuring various components like enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin. These components help detect inflammation, infection, diseases, etc., of the liver and monitor the damage due to liver-related issues.
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A Bilirubin Indirect test measures the amount of indirect or unconjugated bilirubin in your body. Bilirubin is a yellowish byproduct primarily produced when your body breaks down aged red blood cells (RBCs). When RBCs finish their lifespan of 120 days, they break down and pass to your liver. Indirect bilirubin, a form of bilirubin that is unconjugated (not soluble in water), is bound to the protein albumin that helps transport it to the liver. When the liver processes the bilirubin, it unbinds from the albumin and binds to a sugar molecule, making it water-soluble. This water-soluble bilirubin is mixed with bile, excreted in the bile ducts, and stored in your gallbladder. Finally, bile is released into the small intestine to help digest fat and is eventually excreted with your stool as a waste product.
A Bilirubin Direct test measures the amount of direct or conjugated bilirubin present in your body. Bilirubin is a yellowish byproduct primarily produced when the body breaks down aged RBCs. When the RBCs finish their lifespan of 120 days, they break down and pass to the liver. In the liver, direct bilirubin–a form of bilirubin conjugated with glucuronic acid (sugar)–is processed, mixed with bile, and then excreted in the bile ducts and stored in your gallbladder. Finally, the bile is released into the small intestine where it is further broken down and helps digest fat. It is eventually excreted within your stool as a waste product.
Elevated levels of bilirubin can be indicative of various liver or bile duct issues. Additionally, higher bilirubin levels might result from an increased breakdown of red blood cells in the body.
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme found in various organs, with the highest concentration in the liver. Usually, this enzyme is present in low levels in the blood. However, when there is liver damage or disease, GGT is released into the bloodstream, causing an increase in GGT levels. In addition to the liver, GGT can also be elevated in conditions affecting the bile ducts or the pancreas. It is usually, the first liver enzyme to rise in the blood when there is any damage or obstruction in the bile duct, making it one of the most sensitive liver enzyme tests for detecting bile duct problems.
A Bilirubin Total examination quantifies the levels of total bilirubin in the body, encompassing both indirect (unconjugated) and direct (conjugated) bilirubin. Bilirubin, a yellowish waste substance, is primarily generated during the breakdown of aging red blood cells (RBCs) in the body. After their typical lifespan of 120 days, RBCs disintegrate in the liver, leading to the production of a substantial amount of bilirubin. It is crucial for this bilirubin to be eliminated from the body.
An SGPT test measures the amount of ALT or SGPT enzyme in your blood. ALT is most abundantly found in the liver, but it is also present in smaller amounts in other organs like the kidneys, heart, and muscles. Its primary function is to convert food into energy. It also speeds up chemical reactions in the body. These chemical reactions include the production of bile and substances that help your blood clot, break down food and toxins, and fight off an infection.
Elevated levels of ALT in the blood may indicate liver damage or injury. When the liver cells are damaged, they release ALT into the bloodstream, causing an increase in ALT levels. Therefore, the SGPT/ALT test is primarily used to assess the health of the liver and to detect liver-related problems such as hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, or other liver disorders.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
An Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) test measures the quantity of ALP enzyme present throughout the body. The main sources of this enzyme are the liver and bones. It exists in different forms depending on where it originates, such as liver ALP, bone ALP, and intestinal ALP. In the liver, it is found on the edges of the cells that join together to form bile ducts.
ALP levels can be increased during pregnancy as it is found in the placenta of pregnant women. It is also higher in children because their bones are in the growth phase. ALP is often high during growth spurts (a short period when an individual experiences quick physical growth in height and body weight).
An SGOT test measures the levels of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), also known as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), an enzyme produced by the liver. SGOT is present in most body cells, most abundantly in the liver and heart. The primary function of this enzyme is to convert food into glycogen (a form of glucose), which is stored in the cells, primarily the liver. The body uses this glycogen to generate energy for various body functions.
Protein Total, Serum
- Serum Albumin
- Protein Total
- Globulin, Serum
- Albumin/Globulin Ratio, Serum
A Protein Total, Serum test measures the amount of proteins in the body. Proteins are known as the building blocks of all cells and tissues. They play a crucial role in the growth and development of most of your organs and in making enzymes and hormones. There are two types of proteins found in the body, namely albumin and globulin. About 60% of the total protein is made up of albumin, which is produced by the liver. It helps to carry small molecules such as hormones, minerals, and medicines throughout the body. It also serves as a source of amino acids for tissue metabolism. On the other hand, globulin is a group of proteins that are made by the liver and the immune system. They play an important role in liver functioning, blood clotting, and fighting off infections.
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Thyroid Profile Total (T3, T4 & TSH)
A Thyroid Profile Total (T3, T4 & TSH) measures the levels of three hormones in the blood, namely triiodothyronine hormone (T3) total, thyroxine hormone (T4) total, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). T3 and T4 are thyroid hormones that help regulate metabolism and energy levels in the body. On the other hand, TSH is produced by the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4 hormones. The serum levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH have an inverse relationship, i.e., low T4 (as observed in hypothyroidism) and high T4 (as seen in hyperthyroidism) levels are associated with high and low TSH levels, respectively.
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Thyroxine - Total
A Thyroxine - Total measures both the bound and unbound/free form of thyroxine (T4) hormone in the blood. T4 exists in the blood in two forms: bound (attached to proteins) and free (not attached to proteins). Most of the T4 circulating in the blood is bound to proteins and only a small part is free. It is necessary to maintain a fine balance of these forms to ensure the proper functioning of the body.
A Triiodothyronine Total measures triiodothyronine, also known as T3, hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland. T3 hormone plays an important role in regulating the body's metabolism, energy levels, and growth & development. It exists in the blood in two forms: free T3 and bound T3. Free T3 is not bound to proteins in the blood and is the active form of T3. Whereas, bound T3 is bound to proteins, such as albumin and thyroid hormone binding globulin (THBG), which prevent it from entering the body tissues.
TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Ultrasensitive
A TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Ultrasensitive test measures the levels of TSH hormone in the blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland located in the brain. Its function is to stimulate and regulate the functioning of the thyroid gland. It signals the thyroid gland to increase or decrease the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (essential for regulating our body’s metabolism, temperature, heart rate, and growth) when their levels are low or high, respectively. Therefore, when the levels of T3 & T4 decrease, the pituitary gland is stimulated to release TSH. This high TSH level, in turn, stimulates the thyroid gland to release more thyroid hormones (T3 & T4); the vice-versa happens when the levels of thyroid hormones increase.
KFT with Electrolytes (Kidney Function Test with Electrolytes)
A KFT with Electrolytes (Kidney Function Test with Electrolytes) test determines the health of your kidneys. It evaluates parameters such as creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride). This test also helps diagnose possible kidney disorders like inflammation, infection, or functional damage.
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A Serum Creatinine test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscles’ wear and tear during energy production. The kidneys remove it from the body by filtering it from the blood and releasing it into the urine. Therefore, blood creatinine levels indicate how well the kidneys are functioning in filtering and removing waste products from the blood. Generally, higher creatinine levels in the blood may indicate reduced kidney function, while lower levels may suggest decreased muscle mass.
Creatinine levels are also used with other factors, such as age and gender, to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The eGFR is a more comprehensive indicator of kidney function, helps determine appropriate drug dosages, and is essential for assessing the potential toxicity of drugs on the kidneys.
A Potassium test measures the levels of potassium in your body. Potassium is one of the key electrolytes that helps in the functioning of the kidneys, heart, nerves, and muscles. It also balances the effect of sodium and helps keep your blood pressure normal. The body absorbs the required amount of potassium from the dietary sources and eliminates the remaining quantity through urine. Potassium level is typically maintained by the hormone aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the nephrons present in the kidneys and activates the sodium-potassium pump that helps the body reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium. This aids in maintaining a regular and steady potassium level in the blood.
A Uric Acid test determines the level of uric acid in your body. Uric acid is a nitrogenous compound produced by the metabolic breakdown of purine. Purines are present as nitrogenous bases in the DNA and are also found in food like red meat and seafood.
Most uric acid dissolves in the blood and goes into your kidneys. From there, it passes through your body via the urine. Decreased elimination of uric acid is often a result of impaired kidney function due to kidney disease. In many cases, the exact cause of excess uric acid is unknown. Doctors seldom need to test for low levels of uric acid.
A Chloride test measures the amount of chloride in your body. Chloride is present in all body fluids and is found in the highest concentration in the blood and extracellular fluid (fluid present outside the cells). The body gets most of the chloride through dietary salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) and a small amount through other food items. The required amount of chloride is absorbed in the body and the excess amount is excreted by the kidneys through urine. When the chloride is combined with sodium it is mostly found in nature as salt. Chloride generally increases or decreases in direct relationship to sodium but may also change without any changes in sodium levels when there are problems with the body's pH. Usually, the normal blood chloride level remains steady with a slight fall after meals (because the stomach produces hydrochloric acid using chloride from the blood after we eat food).
By producing hormones that control the elimination of sodium through urine, such as natriuretic peptides and aldosterone.
By producing hormones that prevent water loss, such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin.
By controlling thirst (an increase in blood sodium level can make you thirsty and cause you to drink water, returning your sodium to normal).
A Sodium test is used to measure the amount of sodium in your body. Sodium is present in all body fluids and is found in the highest concentration in the extracellular fluid. The body absorbs the required amount of sodium through dietary salts and the remaining is eliminated through the kidneys. The body keeps your blood sodium within a normal and steady range by following three mechanisms:
These mechanisms regulate the amount of water and sodium in the body and control blood pressure by keeping the amount of water in check. When the level of sodium in the blood changes, the water content in your body changes. These changes can be associated with dehydration, edema, and change in blood pressure.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
A Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) test measures the levels of urea nitrogen in the blood. Blood urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver when you eat food and the protein is metabolized into amino acids. This process leads to the production of ammonia that is further converted into urea. Both ammonia and urea are nitrogenous compounds. Your liver releases urea into the blood which is then carried out to the kidneys. In the kidneys, urea is filtered from the blood and flushed out of the body via urine. This is a continuous process, so a small amount of urea nitrogen always remains in the blood.
In the case of a kidney or liver disease, there is a change in the amount of urea present in the blood. If your liver produces urea in an increased amount or if there is any problem in kidney functioning, there might be difficulty in filtering out the waste products from the blood, which can result in increased urea levels in the blood.
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- Aging and health [Internet]. WHO; 01 Oct. 2022 [Accessed 05 Sept. 2023]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health#:~:text=Common%20health%20conditions%20associated%20with,%2C%20diabetes%2C%20depression%20and%20dementia.
- Ray R, Koh K, Fong NP, Nair A. Clinical aspects of health screening for senior citizens. Ann Acad Med Singap. 1991 Nov;20(6):740-4. PMID: 1803960. 20 Nov. 1991 [Accessed 05 Sept. 2023]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1803960/