TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
Overview of TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
What is TORCH Profile 5 Parameters?
Why is TORCH Profile 5 Parameters done?
The TORCH Profile Test is performed:
· To detect and help in the diagnosis of an infection caused by the TORCH group of pathogens in a pregnant woman (usually in the first trimester), or in a woman planning pregnancy
· To screen for infections in a woman in case of recurrent miscarriage
· To screen for infections in a newborn
What does TORCH Profile 5 Parameters Measure?
The TORCH Profile test detects the presence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex virus 1 & 2.
TORCH is an acronym which stands for the group of infectious diseases that may occur in a pregnant woman or a newborn, leading to illness and birth defects. These diseases are:
· Toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This infection can pass from the pregnant mother to the unborn child through the placenta. This infection most commonly occurs from eating uncooked contaminated meat, raw eggs, handling feces of cats, or drinking raw goat milk. This infection can cause miscarriage, vision loss, seizures, hearing loss or other birth defects in the newborn.
· Rubella: Rubella, also called German measles is caused by Rubella virus. If the virus infects the child in the womb, it may cause birth abnormalities like cardiovascular disorders, heart defects, mental retardation, vision disorders, hearing disorders, etc.
· Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Belonging to the herpes virus family, CMV causes negligibly mild symptoms in adults, but may pass on to a child either through the placenta during pregnancy, or through breast milk. It may cause hearing disorders, mental retardation, epileptic seizures, etc. in newborns.
· Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV 1 and 2): In adults, HSV 1 causes cold sores, and HSV 2 causes the common sexually transmitted disease, namely, genital herpes. A newborn may be infected by HSV while traveling through the birth canal during delivery. Both HSV 1 and HSV 2 infections in newborns are usually very severe and affect vital organs, causing breathing disorders, epileptic seizures, and central nervous system damage which may be permanent even after antiviral treatment.
· Other: Other infections include Syphilis, Hepatitis B, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Varicella-zoster virus, and Parvovirus B19. Each of these infections can be transmitted to the child from the mother. This transmission can cause severe conditions in the newborn.
An infection by the above pathogens induces the immune system of the body to produce antibodies called immunoglobulins, mainly IgG and IgM against them. IgM is produced and detected in blood immediately after infection and confers short-term protection. IgG is produced in blood after some time and persists longer. It is responsible for long-term protection from subsequent infections of the same pathogen. This TORCH Profile 5 Parameters Test detects the presence of immunoglobulins IgG against the following:
· Toxoplasma gondii
· Rubella Virus
· Herpes Simplex Virus 1
· Herpes Simplex Virus 2
Preparation for TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
- No special preparation required
Sample Type for TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
Interpreting TORCH Profile 5 Parameters results
The absence of antibodies indicates a negative result, while the presence of antibodies indicates a positive result.
A positive IgG result is seen in case of past or acute infection.
A negative IgG result does not always exclude the possibility of infection. In patients with the suspected early disease, the test should be repeated after 3 weeks in case of a negative result.
The TORCH Profile is used as a screening test and its results are confirmed with further tests.
Note: IgG avidity test is advised to differentiate between past and recent infection in case of a positive result.
TORCH Panel (IgM) is also useful in detecting recent infection in case of positive IgG result.
Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
Frequently Asked Questions about TORCH Profile 5 Parameters
Tests Included in TORCH Profile 5 Parameters(5 tests)
- Herpes Simplex Virus 1 IgG
- Toxoplasma gondii - IgG
- Herpes Simplex Virus 2 IgG
- Cytomegalovirus IgG Antibody