What is CD31?
CD31 is actually a protein encoded by a PECAM1 gene present on chromosome 17. CD31 is found on macrophages, endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, lymphocytes, granulocytes, platelets, osteoclasts, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells. The protein is also found in certain tumours like epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, histiocytic malignancies, hemangioendothelioma, plasmacytomas and other vascular tumors. CD31 demonstrates the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissues. This measures the tumour angiogenesis degree of a growing tumour.
Why is CD31 done?
The test is required for the diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma or a leukaemia, for detection and evaluation of leukocyte cancer cells that persist even after the treatment is completed or if they reappear and to help in the treatment.
Interpreting CD31 results
The presence of CD31 marker protein indicates the presence of particular leukemia or lymphoma.