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Dr. Shreya Gupta
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TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) in Bhopal

TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) in Bhopal Includes 74 testsView All
You need to provide
Blood, Urine
This test is for
Male
Test Preparation
  1. Overnight fasting (8-12 hrs) is required. Do not eat or drink anything except water before the test.
  2. Once the fasting blood sample is collected, have a regular meal. Then, the post-prandial sample to be given exactly 2 hours after starting a meal. It is mandatory to abide by the pre-scheduled sample collection time, as this will help us ensure the accuracy of the test results.
  3. For the USG Whole Abdomen test: A. Overnight fasting (8-12 hours) is required. Do not eat or drink anything except water before the test. B. Drink plenty of water before the USG procedure to ensure a full bladder.
  4. For ECG: A. Remove any metal objects that may interfere with the electrodes. If you have a pacemaker or other implanted cardiac devices, inform the technician. B. Wear comfortable clothing that allows easy access to your chest area, and avoid using oils, lotions, or creams on your chest area on the test day. C. Avoid consuming large amounts of caffeine (coffee, tea, energy drinks) before the test.
  5. For PFT: A. Take your daily medications before your test unless your doctor tells you not to. B. If you use a short-acting inhaler, try not to use it for 6 to 8 hours before the test. If you have to use it, let your doctor know before the test. C. Avoid smoking for at least 6 hours before the test. D. Don’t drink alcohol at least 4 hours before the test. E. Don’t eat a large meal at least 2 hours before the test. F. Don’t exercise for at least 30 minutes before the test. G. It is advised to wear loose clothing that does not squeeze the chest or interfere with breathing.
  6. For X-ray: A. Depending on the area to be imaged, you may be asked to wear a hospital gown at the time of the scan. B. You may have to remove your jewelry and any metal objects that might interfere with the image. C. Pregnant women should inform their doctor (and x-ray technician) as the radiation may affect the fetus. If needed, precautions can be taken to lower the radiation exposure to the fetus.
  7. For TMT (Treadmill test): A. Inform your doctor and technician if you may be pregnant before the test. B. Inform the technician about any pre-existing medical conditions such as heart disease, asthma, diabetes, and all medications you take before the test. C. Avoid heavy meals for at least 2 to 4 hours and caffeine (coffee, tea, energy drinks) and nicotine (cigarettes) for several hours before the test. D. Drink water to stay hydrated, but don't overhydrate right before the test.
  8. Do not stop taking your thyroid medications on the day of the test unless otherwise advised by the doctor.
  9. The urine sample must preferably be the first morning midstream urine (part of urine that comes after the first and before the last stream). Collect the urine sample in a sealed and sterile screw-capped container provided by our sample collection professional. Ensure that the urethral area (from where the urine is passed) is clean & container doesn't come in contact with your skin. You should submit all the required samples for this package at once during the scheduled sample collection.

Understanding TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) in Bhopal


What is TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) in Bhopal?

The TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) is tailored to detect potential health issues early on and to monitor the overall health of TATA employees. The package comprises pathology tests such as complete blood count (CBC) test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test, lipid profile, diabetes screening tests (fasting and postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c), liver function test (LFT), vitamin B12 and vitamin D (25-hydroxy) test, serum creatinine test, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test, and urine examination. It also offers radiology tests like ultrasound (USG) whole abdomen, chest X-ray, pulmonary function test (PFT), electrocardiography (ECG) and stress test (TMT)/2D Echo. Together, pathology and radiology tests are important for holistic wellness, and for the diagnosis, treatment and management of various medical conditions. Additionally, this package includes a general physical examination which determines the height, weight and blood pressure of an individual. The insights from the TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) help doctors make accurate diagnosis and formulate an overall treatment plan.

Note:

  • These tests are specifically made for Eligible Tata Projects Employees & their spouses only. The blood sample collection will be done at your home. For Radiology tests, you need to visit a Tata 1mg partnered lab facility since these tests are fulfilled by Tata 1mg lab partners.
  • Radiology tests may take 4-6 hours to complete and users can expect longer wait times during weekends.

Disclaimer: For the radiology component: Stress Test (TMT)/ 2D Echo- Either one of the tests will be done at the Tata 1mg partner lab as per availability.

What does TPL Male Pathology and Radiology Package (Premium - Above 35 Years) measure?

Contains 74 tests
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Vitamin B12

The Vitamin B12 test measures your vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 is essential for various health aspects, such as maintaining a healthy nervous system, making red blood cells, and creating the genetic material of our cells. Low vitamin B12 levels are more likely to occur in older adults, children, vegans, vegetarians, people with diabetes, individuals who underwent gastric bypass surgery, women who are breastfeeding, and in conditions that impact absorption of this vitamin, like Crohn’s disease. Higher vitamin B12 levels seen in pateint on vitamin suplement does not need treatment as excessive vitamin B12 is usually removed through the urine. However, some conditions, such as liver diseases and myeloproliferative disorders, can cause an increase in vitamin B12 levels, thereby affecting blood cell production.

Know more about Vitamin B12

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ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)

An ESR test measures the rate at which red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle (sediment) in one hour at the bottom of a tube that contains a blood sample.

When there is inflammation in the body, certain proteins, mainly fibrinogen, increase in the blood. This increased amount of fibrinogen causes the red blood cells to form a stack (rouleaux formation) that settles quickly due to its high density, leading to an increase in the ESR.

An ESR test is a non-specific measure of inflammation and can be affected by conditions other than inflammation. This test cannot identify the exact location of the inflammation in your body or what is causing it. Hence, an ESR test is usually performed along with a few other tests to identify or treat possible health concerns.

Know more about ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)

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Blood Urea Nitrogen

The Blood Urea Nitrogen test measures the levels of urea nitrogen in the blood. Blood urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver when you eat food and the protein is metabolized into amino acids. This process leads to the production of ammonia that is further converted into urea. Both ammonia and urea are nitrogenous compounds. Your liver releases urea into the blood which is then carried out to the kidneys. In the kidneys, urea is filtered from the blood and flushed out of the body via urine. This is a continuous process, so a small amount of urea nitrogen always remains in the blood.

In the case of a kidney or liver disease, there is a change in the amount of urea present in the blood. If your liver produces urea in an increased amount or if there is any problem in kidney functioning, there might be difficulty in filtering out the waste products from the blood, which can result in increased urea levels in the blood.

Know more about Blood Urea Nitrogen

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HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)

An HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c) test precisely measures the percentage of sugar-coated or glycated hemoglobin in your blood. The test results represent the proportion of hemoglobin in your blood that has been glycated. 

Hemoglobin, a vital protein found in red blood cells, is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin A is the most abundant form of hemoglobin, and when blood sugar levels increase, a higher proportion of hemoglobin A becomes glycated. As red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately 120 days, the sugar molecules remain attached to the hemoglobin for the duration of the cell's life. Consequently, the HbA1c test offers insight into your average blood sugar levels over the past 8 to 12 weeks. 

Know more about HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)

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CBC (Complete Blood Count)

The CBC (Complete Blood Count) test evaluates red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs}, and platelets. Each of these blood cells performs essential functions–RBCs carry oxygen from your lungs to the various body parts, WBCs help fight infections and other diseases, and platelets help your blood to clot–so determining their levels can provide significant health information. A CBC test also determines the hemoglobin level, a protein in RBC that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your body. Evaluating all these components together can provide important information about your overall health.

Know more about CBC (Complete Blood Count)

  • Differential Leukocyte Count

  • There are five types of WBCs: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. A Differential Leukocyte Count test measures the percentage of each type of WBC in the blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.

    This further contains

    • Differential Neutrophil Count
    • Differential Lymphocyte Count
    • Differential Monocyte Count
    • Differential Eosinophil Count
    • Differential Basophil Count
  • Red Blood Cell Count

  • The Red Blood Cell Count test measures the total number of red blood cells in your blood. RBCs are the most abundant cells in the blood with an average lifespan of 120 days. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and destroyed in the spleen or liver. Their primary function is to help carry oxygen from the lungs to different body parts. The normal range of RBC count can vary depending on age, gender, and the equipment and methods used for testing.

  • Hb (Hemoglobin)

  • An Hb (Hemoglobin) test measures the concentration of hemoglobin protein in your blood. Hemoglobin is made up of iron and globulin proteins. It is an essential part of RBCs and is critical for oxygen transfer from the lungs to all body tissues. Most blood cells, including RBCs, are produced regularly in your bone marrow. The Hb test is a fundamental part of a complete blood count (CBC) and is used to monitor blood health, diagnose various blood disorders, and assess your response to treatments if needed.

  • Platelet Count

  • The Platelet Count test measures the average number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days. 

    Platelets help stop the bleeding, whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel, by adhering and accumulating at the injury site and releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. A loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps, including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this step, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding. 

  • Total Leukocyte Count

  • The Total Leukocyte Count test measures the numbers of all types of leukocytes, namely neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil, in your blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are an essential part of our immune system. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.

  • Hematocrit

  • The Hematocrit test measures the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood as a percentage of the total blood volume. It is a crucial part of a complete blood count (CBC) and helps in assessing your blood health. RBCs are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to different parts of the body. The hematocrit test provides valuable information about your blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.

    Higher-than-normal amounts of RBCs produced by the bone marrow can cause the hematocrit to increase, leading to increased blood density and slow blood flow. On the other hand, lower-than-normal hematocrit can be caused by low production of RBCs, reduced lifespan of RBCs in circulation, or excessive bleeding, leading to a reduced amount of oxygen being transported by RBCs. Monitoring your hematocrit levels is essential for diagnosing and managing various blood-related disorders.

  • Mean Corpuscular Volume

  • The Mean Corpuscular Volume test measures the average size of your red blood cells, which carry oxygen through your body. This test tells whether your RBCs are of average size and volume or whether they are bigger or smaller.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

  • An MCH test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell (RBC). Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein in RBCs, and its major function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all body parts. This test provides information about how much oxygen is being delivered to the body by a certain number of RBCs.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration

  • An MCHC test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of RBCs. MCHC is calculated by dividing the amount of hemoglobin by hematocrit (volume of blood made up of RBCs) and then multiplying it by 100. 

  • Absolute Leucocyte Count

  • The Absolute Leucocyte Count test measures the total number of white blood cells (leucocytes) in the given volume of blood. It examines different types of white blood cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils. These cells tell about the status of the immune system and its ability to fight off infections and other conditions like inflammation, allergies, bone marrow disorders etc.

    This further contains

    • Absolute Eosinophil Count
    • Absolute Neutrophil Count
    • Absolute Basophil Count
    • Absolute Lymphocyte Count
    • Absolute Monocyte Count
  • Mean Platelet Volume

  • An MPV test measures the average size of the platelets in your blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days. 

    Platelets help stop bleeding whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel by adhering and accumulating at the injury site, and by releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. After these steps, a loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury, and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or are not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding. 

  • PDW

  • The PDW test reflects variability in platelet size, and is considered a marker of platelet function and activation (clot formation in case of an injury). This marker can give you additional information about your platelets and the cause of a high or low platelet count. Larger platelets are usually younger platelets that have been recently released from the bone marrow, while smaller platelets may be older and have been in circulation for a few days. Higher PDW values reflect a larger range of platelet size, which may result from increased activation, destruction and consumption of platelets.

  • RDW CV

  • The RDW CV test which is part of red cell indices, helps identify characteristics of red blood cells. RDW (red cell distribution width) measures the variations in the sizes of red blood cells, indicating how much they differ from each other in a blood sample. RDW is expressed as RDW-CV, a coefficient of variation. A higher RDW may suggest more variation in red cell sizes, while a lower RDW indicates more uniform red cell sizes.

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Serum Creatinine

The Serum Creatinine test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscles’ wear and tear during energy production. The kidneys remove it from the body by filtering it from the blood and releasing it into the urine. Therefore, blood creatinine levels indicate how well the kidneys are functioning in filtering and removing waste products from the blood. Generally, higher creatinine levels in the blood may indicate reduced kidney function, while lower levels may suggest decreased muscle mass.

Know more about Serum Creatinine

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FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)

A fasting blood sugar test measures the glucose level in the body under overnight fasting conditions. Glucose serves as the body's energy currency and is broken down through metabolism to produce energy. Hormones and enzymes produced by the liver and pancreas control this process. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose levels. When these levels are high, such as after a meal, insulin is secreted to transport glucose into cells for energy production. Elevated glucose levels in the body after fasting may indicate a risk of developing prediabetes or diabetes, which can be of two types- Type 1, caused by little or no insulin production, and Type 2, caused by insulin resistance or decreased insulin production.

Know more about FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)

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PPBS (Postprandial Blood Sugar)

The PPBS (Postprandial Blood Sugar) test measures glucose levels in the blood two hours after a meal and is often performed with a fasting blood glucose test. This test measures how well your body can handle glucose after eating. It helps diagnose and monitor type 1 diabetes, caused by little or no insulin production, and type 2 diabetes, caused by insulin resistance or decreased insulin production. High postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) levels can indicate early insulin resistance, making your body less responsive to insulin.

Know more about PPBS (Postprandial Blood Sugar)

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Lipid Profile

The Lipid Profile assesses the level of specific fat molecules called lipids in the blood and helps determine the risk of heart ailments. This test determines the amount of different types of lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Lipids play a pivotal role in the functioning of the body. They are crucial components of the cell membranes and hormones, provide cushioning, and are a storehouse of energy. Any alterations in the lipid levels may lead to potential heart ailments, making their monitoring crucial.

Know more about Lipid Profile

  • Cholesterol - LDL

  • The Cholesterol - LDL test measures the concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol plays an important role in your body. It carries cholesterol from your liver to other parts of the body where it's needed for things like building cell walls and making hormones. However, it is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because when present in excess in your blood, it can stick to your blood vessel walls leading to the formation of plaque, making them narrow and less flexible. When this happens, it's harder for the blood to flow, which can lead to heart problems, like heart attacks and strokes. By measuring LDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and can recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.

  • Triglycerides

  • The Triglycerides test measures the amount of triglycerides in the blood and helps evaluate your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) that your body uses as a source of energy. When you consume more calories than your body needs, the excess calories are converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells for later use. High triglyceride levels can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other related conditions. 

  • Cholesterol - Total

  • The Cholesterol - Total test measures the total amount of cholesterol (fats) in your blood. Cholesterol is mainly synthesized in the liver and partially in the intestines. It acts as a building block for cell membranes, is a precursor to vital hormones, and helps produce bile acids that help digest fats. Cholesterol is transported through the blood as lipoproteins: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An optimal amount of these proteins is necessary for proper body functioning.

  • Cholesterol - HDL

  • The Cholesterol - HDL test measures the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood. HDL cholesterol plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular health, as it helps transport excess low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from the bloodstream back to the liver for excretion. This process prevents plaque buildup on the blood vessel walls, which can cause them to become narrow and less flexible. Higher HDL cholesterol levels are generally associated with a lower risk of heart problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. By measuring HDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, including lifestyle modifications and medications.

  • Very Low Density Lipoprotein

  • The Very Low Density Lipoprotein test measures the concentration of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in the blood. VLDL cholesterol plays a vital role in the body's metabolic processes. It is produced by the liver and is used to transport triglycerides, a type of fat, from the liver to various tissues throughout the body, where they are either utilized for energy or stored for later use. Though VLDL cholesterol is essential for the body's normal functioning, it is harmful if present in excess amounts. By measuring VLDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.

  • Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio

  • The Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio test measures the ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/good cholesterol in your blood which is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. This ratio is calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL number. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.

  • LDL/HDL Ratio

  • An LDL/HDL Ratio test measures the ratio of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in your blood. These two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body. LDL, often referred to as the 'bad' cholesterol, carries cholesterol to the cells that need it. However, if there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can combine with other substances and form plaque in the arteries, leading to cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, HDL, often referred to as the 'good' cholesterol, helps remove other forms of cholesterol, including LDL, from the bloodstream. It transports cholesterol back to the liver, where it is broken down and eliminated from the body, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol buildup and heart disease. The LDL/HDL ratio is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.

  • Non HDL Cholesterol

  • The Non HDL Cholesterol test looks for the “bad” cholesterol particles that are likely to contribute to heart problems. These bad particles include LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and remnants of other cholesterol-carrying molecules. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that circulates in your bloodstream and is essential for various bodily functions. However, too much of “bad” types of cholesterol can build up in your arteries and increase the risk of heart conditions. LDL and VLDL cholesterol particles are often referred to as the "bad" cholesterol because they can stick to the walls of your arteries and form plaque, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow to your heart. By measuring non-HDL cholesterol, your doctor can assess your risk of heart disease and determine if any interventions or lifestyle changes are needed to protect your heart.

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Vitamin D (25-Hydroxy)

The Vitamin D (25-Hydroxy) test measures the levels of vitamin D in the body. It is an essential nutrient that can be synthesized in the body upon healthy exposure to sunlight or absorbed from dietary sources. It majorly exists in two forms: Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D2 is present in plants, such as yeast or mushrooms, and is available as a supplement in fortified foods, and vitamin D3 is found in foods like cheese, green vegetables, mushrooms, egg yolks, and fatty fish.

Both forms of vitamin D (D2 and D3) need to undergo some chemical changes before being available for use in the body. These chemical changes take place in the liver or kidneys. The liver converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D). The Vitamin D (25-Hydroxy) test measures the level of this 25-OH vitamin D as it is the primary form of vitamin D that circulates in the blood.

Know more about Vitamin D (25-Hydroxy)

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TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Ultrasensitive

The TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Ultrasensitive test measures the levels of TSH hormone in the blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland located in the brain. Its function is to stimulate and regulate the functioning of the thyroid gland. It signals the thyroid gland to increase or decrease the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (essential for regulating our body’s metabolism, temperature, heart rate, and growth) when their levels are low or high, respectively. Therefore, when the levels of T3 & T4 decrease, the pituitary gland is stimulated to release TSH. This high TSH level, in turn, stimulates the thyroid gland to release more thyroid hormones (T3 & T4); the vice-versa happens when the levels of thyroid hormones increase.

Know more about TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Ultrasensitive

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Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy)

The Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy) test involves gross, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of the urine sample.

  1. Gross examination: It involves visually inspecting the urine sample for color and appearance. Typically, the urine color ranges from colorless or pale yellow to deep amber, depending on the urine’s concentration. Things such as medications, supplements, and some foods such as beetroot can affect the color of your urine. However, unusual urine color can also be a sign of disease.

    In appearance, the urine sample may be clear or cloudy. A clear appearance is indicative of healthy urine. However, the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria, etc., may result in cloudy urine, indicating conditions such as dehydration, UTIs, kidney stones, etc. Some other factors, such as sperm and skin cells, may also result in a cloudy appearance but are harmless.

  2. Chemical examination: It examines the chemical nature of the urine sample using special test strips called dipsticks. These test strips are dipped into the urine sample and change color when they come in contact with specific substances. The degree of color change estimates the amount of the substance present. Some common things detected include protein, urine pH, ketones, glucose, specific gravity, blood, bilirubin, nitrites, and urobilinogen.

  3. Microscopic examination: This involves the analysis of the urine sample under the microscope for pus cells, red blood cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, yeast. and other constituents.

Know more about Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy)

  • Urobilinogen

  • Ketone

  • Nitrite

  • The Nitrite test measures the presence of nitrites in the urine sample. Nitrites are chemicals formed by the conversion of nitrates by certain bacteria. Under normal conditions, urine does not contain nitrites. However, when bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) are present, they convert nitrates (which are normally found in the urine) into nitrites. Thus, the presence of nitrites in urine is an indication of a bacterial infection, making the Nitrite test a key tool in diagnosing UTIs.

  • Colour

  • The urine colour test primarily measures the concentration and colour of urine to provide insights into an individual’s  overall health. It assesses hydration status, with clear to light yellow urine indicating good hydration and darker shades suggesting dehydration. It can also detect urinary tract infections (UTIs) through unusual colours like cloudy or reddish urine, signaling the presence of blood or pus. Abnormal urine colours, such as dark brown or amber, may indicate liver conditions like hepatitis or cirrhosis, while pink, red, or brown urine can reveal the presence of blood, signaling kidney issues, trauma, or potential malignancies. The test can reflect dietary influences and supplement intake, with certain foods and vitamins causing colour changes. It can also highlight metabolic disorders, such as porphyria, which may cause purple urine. Additionally, medication effects and potential exposure to toxins can be inferred from changes in urine colour, making this test a comprehensive indicator of overall health and potential underlying conditions.

  • Appearance

  • Specific Gravity

  • Pus Cell

  • Epithelial Cell

  • Casts

  • Crystals

  • Protein Urine

  • Ph for Urine

  • Urine Glucose

  • Yeast

  • The urine yeast test measures the presence of yeast cells in the urine sample. The presence of yeast cells can indicate an infection or an imbalance in the urinary tract's natural microbial environment. Yeast is a type of fungus that naturally resides in small amounts on the skin, in the mouth, and in the intestines. However, when it overgrows, it can cause infections, such as yeast infections in the urinary tract which require medical attention. Therefore this test is crucial for identifying fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida species, and plays a vital role in guiding appropriate treatment strategies.

  • Red Blood Cells

  • Leucocyte Esterase

  • Blood

  • Bacteria

  • Bilirubin

  • The Bilirubin test measures the levels of bilirubin present in the urine. Bilirubin is a by-product of the breakdown of old red blood cells, processed by the liver. This test is crucial in assessing liver function and detecting liver diseases.

    Normally, the liver converts bilirubin into a form that can be excreted into bile and eventually eliminated from the body. When liver function is impaired, the amount of bilirubin in the urine can change, serving as an important indicator of abnormalities such as liver disease or bile duct blockage.

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LFT (Liver Function Test)

An LFT (Liver Function Test) helps determine the health of your liver by measuring various components like enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin. These components help detect inflammation, infection, diseases, etc., of the liver and monitor the damage due to liver-related issues.

Know more about LFT (Liver Function Test)

  • Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect)

  • The Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect) test measures the level of three forms of bilirubin such as total bilirubin, direct (conjugated bilirubin), and indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin in the blood. Total bilirubin represents the sum of direct and indirect bilirubin. Direct bilirubin is the water-soluble form of bilirubin that has been processed by the liver via a conjugation process with glucuronic acid and is ready to be excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the intestines. Indirect bilirubin is the water-insoluble form of bilirubin that has not yet been processed by the liver and is bound to albumin in the blood. It is formed in the spleen and liver during the breakdown of hemoglobin from old or damaged red blood cells and cannot be excreted directly by the liver. Instead, it is transported to the liver, where it undergoes conjugation to become direct bilirubin. 

    Getting tested with the Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect) test provides valuable information into various aspects of liver function, bile duct health, and the body’s ability to break down and eliminate bilirubin.

    This further contains

    • Bilirubin Total
    • Bilirubin Direct
    • Bilirubin Indirect
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase

  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme found in various organs, with the highest concentration in the liver. Usually, this enzyme is present in low levels in the blood. However, when there is liver damage or disease, GGT is released into the bloodstream, causing an increase in GGT levels. In addition to the liver, GGT can also be elevated in conditions affecting the bile ducts or the pancreas. It is usually, the first liver enzyme to rise in the blood when there is any damage or obstruction in the bile duct, making it one of the most sensitive liver enzyme tests for detecting bile duct problems.

  • SGPT

  • An SGPT test measures the amount of ALT or SGPT enzyme in your blood. ALT is most abundantly found in the liver but is also present in smaller amounts in other organs like the kidneys, heart, and muscles. Its primary function is to convert food into energy. It also speeds up chemical reactions in the body. These chemical reactions include the production of bile and substances that help your blood clot, break down food and toxins, and fight off an infection.

    Elevated levels of ALT in the blood may indicate liver damage or injury. When the liver cells are damaged, they release ALT into the bloodstream, causing an increase in ALT levels. Therefore, the SGPT/ALT test is primarily used to assess the liver's health and to detect liver-related problems such as hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, or other liver disorders.

  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

  • An Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) test measures the quantity of ALP enzyme present throughout the body. The main sources of this enzyme are the liver and bones. It exists in different forms depending on where it originates, such as liver ALP, bone ALP, and intestinal ALP. In the liver, it is found on the edges of the cells that join together to form bile ducts. 

    ALP levels can be increased during pregnancy as it is found in the placenta of pregnant women. It is also higher in children because their bones are in the growth phase. ALP is often high during growth spurts (a short period when an individual experiences quick physical growth in height and body weight).

  • SGOT

  • An SGOT test measures the levels of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), also known as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), an enzyme produced by the liver. SGOT is present in most body cells, most abundantly in the liver and heart. The primary function of this enzyme is to convert food into glycogen (a form of glucose), which is stored in the cells, primarily the liver. The body uses this glycogen to generate energy for various body functions.

  • Protein Total, Serum

  • The Protein Total, Serum test measures the amount of proteins in the body. Proteins are known as the building blocks of all cells and tissues. They play a crucial role in the growth and development of most of your organs and in making enzymes and hormones. There are two types of proteins found in the body, namely albumin and globulin. About 60% of the total protein is made up of albumin, which is produced by the liver. It helps to carry small molecules such as hormones, minerals, and medicines throughout the body. It also serves as a source of amino acids for tissue metabolism. On the other hand, globulin is a group of proteins that are made by the liver and the immune system. They play an important role in liver functioning, blood clotting, and fighting off infections.

    This further contains

    • Albumin/Globulin Ratio, Serum
    • Globulin, Serum
    • Serum Albumin
    • Protein Total

Ultrasound Whole Abdomen

Electrocardiography at Center

Pulmonary Function Tests at Center

Chest X-ray

Stress Test (TMT) / 2D Echo

General Examination (Height, Weight, BP)

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