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Understanding the Test
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Written by
Dr. Shreya Gupta
BDS, MDS - Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology
Reviewed by
Dr. Ashish Ranjan
MBBS, MD (Pharmacology)
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Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) in Ahmedabad

Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) in Ahmedabad Includes 82 testsView All
You need to provide
Blood, Urine
This test is for
Male, Female
Test Preparation
  1. Overnight fasting (8-12 hrs) is required. Do not eat or drink anything except water before the test.
  2. The urine sample must preferably be the first morning midstream urine (part of urine that comes after the first and before the last stream). Collect the urine sample in a sealed and sterile screw-capped container provided by our sample collection professional. Ensure that the urethral area (from where the urine is passed) is clean & container doesn't come in contact with your skin. Women are advised not to give the sample during the menstrual period unless prescribed. You should submit all the required samples for this package at once during the scheduled sample collection.
  3. Patients taking biotin supplements or receiving high-dose biotin therapy are advised to stop supplements for 72 hours before sample collection due to possible interference with this test.
  4. Patient's age and gender are mandatory. This test is applicable for patients aged 18 years or more.

Understanding Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) in Ahmedabad


What is Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) in Ahmedabad?

The Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) is tailored for adults (18 years and above) with diabetes and it provides comprehensive screening for any potential health issues that may be seen in diabetic patients. This package includes tests like complete blood count (CBC), diabetes screen (glucose-fasting & HbA1c), lipid profile, liver function test, kidney function test with eGFR, and microalbumin-creatinine ratio (urine ACR). Tests like eGFR (estimated GFR) in adults (18 years and above) and Urine ACR are reliable indicators of kidney function and the earliest indicators of kidney damage. The package also includes Advanced cardiac risk markers (hs-CRP, homocysteine, lipoprotein A, and apolipoproteins A1 & B), vitamins like B12 & B9, and urine R/M. The Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) also offers the NT-Pro BNP test, a cardiac hormone that can provide insight into your heart health and its functioning. In diabetics, measurement of NT-proBNP is recommended on at least a yearly basis. This package aids in early detection of potential health concerns and their timely management which helps restore your health and lead a healthy life.

What does Diabetes Care Package Premium (18 Years & Above) measure?

Contains 82 tests
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Vitamin B12

The Vitamin B12 test measures your vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 is essential for various health aspects, such as maintaining a healthy nervous system, making red blood cells, and creating the genetic material of our cells. Low vitamin B12 levels are more likely to occur in older adults, children, vegans, vegetarians, people with diabetes, individuals who underwent gastric bypass surgery, women who are breastfeeding, and in conditions that impact absorption of this vitamin, like Crohn’s disease. Higher vitamin B12 levels seen in pateint on vitamin suplement does not need treatment as excessive vitamin B12 is usually removed through the urine. However, some conditions, such as liver diseases and myeloproliferative disorders, can cause an increase in vitamin B12 levels, thereby affecting blood cell production.

Know more about Vitamin B12

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Vitamin B 9

The Vitamin B 9 test analyzes the levels of vitamin B9 in the blood. Vitamin B9 is a part of the B complex of vitamins and is an essential nutrient, meaning the body cannot produce it and has to be taken into the diet. Folate is the naturally occurring form of vitamin B9, whereas folic acid refers to a supplement that is added to food and drinks. The deficiency of vitamin B9 (folic acid) can also lead to macrocytic anemia in which the size of the RBCs becomes larger than normal.

Know more about Vitamin B 9

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NT-Pro BNP

An NT-Pro BNP test measures the concentration of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) in the blood. It is a cardiac hormone secreted from the left ventricles (the organ's main pumping chamber) and helps to regulate blood volume. When heart failure develops or worsens, the heart muscle cells produce NT-Pro BNP, which is released into the bloodstream. It helps alleviate the condition by relaxing the blood vessels, reducing fluid volume, and reducing the heart's workload.

NT-Pro BNP concentration in the blood increases in heart failure and other diseases that affect the heart and circulatory system. Measuring the levels of NT-Pro BNP can provide insight into your heart’s current health and functioning.

Know more about NT-Pro BNP

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HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)

An HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c) test precisely measures the percentage of sugar-coated or glycated hemoglobin in your blood. The test results represent the proportion of hemoglobin in your blood that has been glycated. 

Hemoglobin, a vital protein found in red blood cells, is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin A is the most abundant form of hemoglobin, and when blood sugar levels increase, a higher proportion of hemoglobin A becomes glycated. As red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately 120 days, the sugar molecules remain attached to the hemoglobin for the duration of the cell's life. Consequently, the HbA1c test offers insight into your average blood sugar levels over the past 8 to 12 weeks. 

Know more about HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)

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CBC (Complete Blood Count)

The CBC (Complete Blood Count) test evaluates red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs}, and platelets. Each of these blood cells performs essential functions–RBCs carry oxygen from your lungs to the various body parts, WBCs help fight infections and other diseases, and platelets help your blood to clot–so determining their levels can provide significant health information. A CBC test also determines the hemoglobin level, a protein in RBC that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your body. Evaluating all these components together can provide important information about your overall health.

Know more about CBC (Complete Blood Count)

  • Differential Leukocyte Count

  • There are five types of WBCs: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. A Differential Leukocyte Count test measures the percentage of each type of WBC in the blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.

    This further contains

    • Differential Neutrophil Count
    • Differential Lymphocyte Count
    • Differential Monocyte Count
    • Differential Eosinophil Count
    • Differential Basophil Count
  • Red Blood Cell Count

  • The Red Blood Cell Count test measures the total number of red blood cells in your blood. RBCs are the most abundant cells in the blood with an average lifespan of 120 days. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and destroyed in the spleen or liver. Their primary function is to help carry oxygen from the lungs to different body parts. The normal range of RBC count can vary depending on age, gender, and the equipment and methods used for testing.

  • Hb (Hemoglobin)

  • An Hb (Hemoglobin) test measures the concentration of hemoglobin protein in your blood. Hemoglobin is made up of iron and globulin proteins. It is an essential part of RBCs and is critical for oxygen transfer from the lungs to all body tissues. Most blood cells, including RBCs, are produced regularly in your bone marrow. The Hb test is a fundamental part of a complete blood count (CBC) and is used to monitor blood health, diagnose various blood disorders, and assess your response to treatments if needed.

  • Platelet Count

  • The Platelet Count test measures the average number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days. 

    Platelets help stop the bleeding, whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel, by adhering and accumulating at the injury site and releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. A loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps, including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this step, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding. 

  • Total Leukocyte Count

  • The Total Leukocyte Count test measures the numbers of all types of leukocytes, namely neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil, in your blood. Leukocytes or WBCs are an essential part of our immune system. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and defend the body against infections and diseases. Each type of WBC plays a unique role to protect against infections and is present in different numbers.

  • Hematocrit

  • The Hematocrit test measures the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood as a percentage of the total blood volume. It is a crucial part of a complete blood count (CBC) and helps in assessing your blood health. RBCs are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to different parts of the body. The hematocrit test provides valuable information about your blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.

    Higher-than-normal amounts of RBCs produced by the bone marrow can cause the hematocrit to increase, leading to increased blood density and slow blood flow. On the other hand, lower-than-normal hematocrit can be caused by low production of RBCs, reduced lifespan of RBCs in circulation, or excessive bleeding, leading to a reduced amount of oxygen being transported by RBCs. Monitoring your hematocrit levels is essential for diagnosing and managing various blood-related disorders.

  • Mean Corpuscular Volume

  • The Mean Corpuscular Volume test measures the average size of your red blood cells, which carry oxygen through your body. This test tells whether your RBCs are of average size and volume or whether they are bigger or smaller.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

  • An MCH test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell (RBC). Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein in RBCs, and its major function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all body parts. This test provides information about how much oxygen is being delivered to the body by a certain number of RBCs.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration

  • An MCHC test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of RBCs. MCHC is calculated by dividing the amount of hemoglobin by hematocrit (volume of blood made up of RBCs) and then multiplying it by 100. 

  • Absolute Leucocyte Count

  • The Absolute Leucocyte Count test measures the total number of white blood cells (leucocytes) in the given volume of blood. It examines different types of white blood cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils. These cells tell about the status of the immune system and its ability to fight off infections and other conditions like inflammation, allergies, bone marrow disorders etc.

    This further contains

    • Absolute Eosinophil Count
    • Absolute Neutrophil Count
    • Absolute Basophil Count
    • Absolute Lymphocyte Count
    • Absolute Monocyte Count
  • Mean Platelet Volume

  • An MPV test measures the average size of the platelets in your blood. Platelets are disk-shaped tiny cells originating from large cells known as megakaryocytes, which are found in the bone marrow. After the platelets are formed, they are released into the blood circulation. Their average life span is 7-10 days. 

    Platelets help stop bleeding whenever there is an injury or trauma to a tissue or blood vessel by adhering and accumulating at the injury site, and by releasing chemical compounds that stimulate the gathering of more platelets. After these steps, a loose platelet plug is formed at the site of injury, and this process is known as primary hemostasis. These activated platelets support the coagulation pathway that involves a series of steps including the sequential activation of clotting factors; this process is known as secondary hemostasis. After this, there is a formation of fibrin strands that form a mesh incorporated into and around the platelet plug. This mesh strengthens and stabilizes the blood clot so that it remains in place until the injury heals. After healing, other factors come into play and break the clot down so that it gets removed. In case the platelets are not sufficient in number or are not functioning properly, a stable clot might not form. These unstable clots can result in an increased risk of excessive bleeding. 

  • PDW

  • The PDW test reflects variability in platelet size, and is considered a marker of platelet function and activation (clot formation in case of an injury). This marker can give you additional information about your platelets and the cause of a high or low platelet count. Larger platelets are usually younger platelets that have been recently released from the bone marrow, while smaller platelets may be older and have been in circulation for a few days. Higher PDW values reflect a larger range of platelet size, which may result from increased activation, destruction and consumption of platelets.

  • RDW CV

  • The RDW CV test which is part of red cell indices, helps identify characteristics of red blood cells. RDW (red cell distribution width) measures the variations in the sizes of red blood cells, indicating how much they differ from each other in a blood sample. RDW is expressed as RDW-CV, a coefficient of variation. A higher RDW may suggest more variation in red cell sizes, while a lower RDW indicates more uniform red cell sizes.

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FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)

A fasting blood sugar test measures the glucose level in the body under overnight fasting conditions. Glucose serves as the body's energy currency and is broken down through metabolism to produce energy. Hormones and enzymes produced by the liver and pancreas control this process. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose levels. When these levels are high, such as after a meal, insulin is secreted to transport glucose into cells for energy production. Elevated glucose levels in the body after fasting may indicate a risk of developing prediabetes or diabetes, which can be of two types- Type 1, caused by little or no insulin production, and Type 2, caused by insulin resistance or decreased insulin production.

Know more about FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)

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Lipid Profile

The Lipid Profile assesses the level of specific fat molecules called lipids in the blood and helps determine the risk of heart ailments. This test determines the amount of different types of lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Lipids play a pivotal role in the functioning of the body. They are crucial components of the cell membranes and hormones, provide cushioning, and are a storehouse of energy. Any alterations in the lipid levels may lead to potential heart ailments, making their monitoring crucial.

Know more about Lipid Profile

  • Cholesterol - LDL

  • The Cholesterol - LDL test measures the concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol plays an important role in your body. It carries cholesterol from your liver to other parts of the body where it's needed for things like building cell walls and making hormones. However, it is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because when present in excess in your blood, it can stick to your blood vessel walls leading to the formation of plaque, making them narrow and less flexible. When this happens, it's harder for the blood to flow, which can lead to heart problems, like heart attacks and strokes. By measuring LDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and can recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.

  • Triglycerides

  • The Triglycerides test measures the amount of triglycerides in the blood and helps evaluate your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) that your body uses as a source of energy. When you consume more calories than your body needs, the excess calories are converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells for later use. High triglyceride levels can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other related conditions. 

  • Cholesterol - Total

  • The Cholesterol - Total test measures the total amount of cholesterol (fats) in your blood. Cholesterol is mainly synthesized in the liver and partially in the intestines. It acts as a building block for cell membranes, is a precursor to vital hormones, and helps produce bile acids that help digest fats. Cholesterol is transported through the blood as lipoproteins: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). An optimal amount of these proteins is necessary for proper body functioning.

  • Cholesterol - HDL

  • The Cholesterol - HDL test measures the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood. HDL cholesterol plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular health, as it helps transport excess low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from the bloodstream back to the liver for excretion. This process prevents plaque buildup on the blood vessel walls, which can cause them to become narrow and less flexible. Higher HDL cholesterol levels are generally associated with a lower risk of heart problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. By measuring HDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, including lifestyle modifications and medications.

  • Very Low Density Lipoprotein

  • The Very Low Density Lipoprotein test measures the concentration of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in the blood. VLDL cholesterol plays a vital role in the body's metabolic processes. It is produced by the liver and is used to transport triglycerides, a type of fat, from the liver to various tissues throughout the body, where they are either utilized for energy or stored for later use. Though VLDL cholesterol is essential for the body's normal functioning, it is harmful if present in excess amounts. By measuring VLDL cholesterol levels, your doctor can assess your risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and recommend appropriate preventive or treatment strategies.

  • Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio

  • The Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio test measures the ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/good cholesterol in your blood which is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. This ratio is calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL number. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.

  • LDL/HDL Ratio

  • An LDL/HDL Ratio test measures the ratio of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in your blood. These two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body. LDL, often referred to as the 'bad' cholesterol, carries cholesterol to the cells that need it. However, if there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can combine with other substances and form plaque in the arteries, leading to cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, HDL, often referred to as the 'good' cholesterol, helps remove other forms of cholesterol, including LDL, from the bloodstream. It transports cholesterol back to the liver, where it is broken down and eliminated from the body, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol buildup and heart disease. The LDL/HDL ratio is a significant indicator of cardiovascular health. A high ratio indicates a higher amount of 'bad' cholesterol relative to 'good' cholesterol, implying a higher risk of developing heart disease. Conversely, a lower ratio implies a higher amount of 'good' cholesterol relative to 'bad' cholesterol, indicating a lower risk.

  • Non HDL Cholesterol

  • The Non HDL Cholesterol test looks for the “bad” cholesterol particles that are likely to contribute to heart problems. These bad particles include LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and remnants of other cholesterol-carrying molecules. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that circulates in your bloodstream and is essential for various bodily functions. However, too much of “bad” types of cholesterol can build up in your arteries and increase the risk of heart conditions. LDL and VLDL cholesterol particles are often referred to as the "bad" cholesterol because they can stick to the walls of your arteries and form plaque, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow to your heart. By measuring non-HDL cholesterol, your doctor can assess your risk of heart disease and determine if any interventions or lifestyle changes are needed to protect your heart.

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Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy)

The Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy) test involves gross, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of the urine sample.

  1. Gross examination: It involves visually inspecting the urine sample for color and appearance. Typically, the urine color ranges from colorless or pale yellow to deep amber, depending on the urine’s concentration. Things such as medications, supplements, and some foods such as beetroot can affect the color of your urine. However, unusual urine color can also be a sign of disease.

    In appearance, the urine sample may be clear or cloudy. A clear appearance is indicative of healthy urine. However, the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria, etc., may result in cloudy urine, indicating conditions such as dehydration, UTIs, kidney stones, etc. Some other factors, such as sperm and skin cells, may also result in a cloudy appearance but are harmless.

  2. Chemical examination: It examines the chemical nature of the urine sample using special test strips called dipsticks. These test strips are dipped into the urine sample and change color when they come in contact with specific substances. The degree of color change estimates the amount of the substance present. Some common things detected include protein, urine pH, ketones, glucose, specific gravity, blood, bilirubin, nitrites, and urobilinogen.

  3. Microscopic examination: This involves the analysis of the urine sample under the microscope for pus cells, red blood cells, casts, crystals, bacteria, yeast. and other constituents.

Know more about Urine R/M (Urine Routine & Microscopy)

  • Urobilinogen

  • Ketone

  • Nitrite

  • Colour

  • Appearance

  • Specific Gravity

  • Pus Cell

  • Epithelial Cell

  • Casts

  • Crystals

  • Protein Urine

  • Ph for Urine

  • Urine Glucose

  • Yeast

  • Red Blood Cells

  • Leucocyte Esterase

  • Blood

  • Bacteria

  • Bilirubin

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LFT (Liver Function Test)

An LFT (Liver Function Test) helps determine the health of your liver by measuring various components like enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin. These components help detect inflammation, infection, diseases, etc., of the liver and monitor the damage due to liver-related issues.

Know more about LFT (Liver Function Test)

  • Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect)

  • The Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect) test measures the level of three forms of bilirubin such as total bilirubin, direct (conjugated bilirubin), and indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin in the blood. Total bilirubin represents the sum of direct and indirect bilirubin. Direct bilirubin is the water-soluble form of bilirubin that has been processed by the liver via a conjugation process with glucuronic acid and is ready to be excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the intestines. Indirect bilirubin is the water-insoluble form of bilirubin that has not yet been processed by the liver and is bound to albumin in the blood. It is formed in the spleen and liver during the breakdown of hemoglobin from old or damaged red blood cells and cannot be excreted directly by the liver. Instead, it is transported to the liver, where it undergoes conjugation to become direct bilirubin. 

    Getting tested with the Bilirubin (Total, Direct and Indirect) test provides valuable information into various aspects of liver function, bile duct health, and the body’s ability to break down and eliminate bilirubin.

    This further contains

    • Bilirubin Total
    • Bilirubin Direct
    • Bilirubin Indirect
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase

  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme found in various organs, with the highest concentration in the liver. Usually, this enzyme is present in low levels in the blood. However, when there is liver damage or disease, GGT is released into the bloodstream, causing an increase in GGT levels. In addition to the liver, GGT can also be elevated in conditions affecting the bile ducts or the pancreas. It is usually, the first liver enzyme to rise in the blood when there is any damage or obstruction in the bile duct, making it one of the most sensitive liver enzyme tests for detecting bile duct problems.

  • SGPT

  • An SGPT test measures the amount of ALT or SGPT enzyme in your blood. ALT is most abundantly found in the liver but is also present in smaller amounts in other organs like the kidneys, heart, and muscles. Its primary function is to convert food into energy. It also speeds up chemical reactions in the body. These chemical reactions include the production of bile and substances that help your blood clot, break down food and toxins, and fight off an infection.

    Elevated levels of ALT in the blood may indicate liver damage or injury. When the liver cells are damaged, they release ALT into the bloodstream, causing an increase in ALT levels. Therefore, the SGPT/ALT test is primarily used to assess the liver's health and to detect liver-related problems such as hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, or other liver disorders.

  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

  • An Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) test measures the quantity of ALP enzyme present throughout the body. The main sources of this enzyme are the liver and bones. It exists in different forms depending on where it originates, such as liver ALP, bone ALP, and intestinal ALP. In the liver, it is found on the edges of the cells that join together to form bile ducts. 

    ALP levels can be increased during pregnancy as it is found in the placenta of pregnant women. It is also higher in children because their bones are in the growth phase. ALP is often high during growth spurts (a short period when an individual experiences quick physical growth in height and body weight).

  • SGOT

  • An SGOT test measures the levels of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), also known as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), an enzyme produced by the liver. SGOT is present in most body cells, most abundantly in the liver and heart. The primary function of this enzyme is to convert food into glycogen (a form of glucose), which is stored in the cells, primarily the liver. The body uses this glycogen to generate energy for various body functions.

  • Protein Total, Serum

  • The Protein Total, Serum test measures the amount of proteins in the body. Proteins are known as the building blocks of all cells and tissues. They play a crucial role in the growth and development of most of your organs and in making enzymes and hormones. There are two types of proteins found in the body, namely albumin and globulin. About 60% of the total protein is made up of albumin, which is produced by the liver. It helps to carry small molecules such as hormones, minerals, and medicines throughout the body. It also serves as a source of amino acids for tissue metabolism. On the other hand, globulin is a group of proteins that are made by the liver and the immune system. They play an important role in liver functioning, blood clotting, and fighting off infections.

    This further contains

    • Albumin/Globulin Ratio, Serum
    • Globulin, Serum
    • Serum Albumin
    • Protein Total
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Advanced Cardiac Risk Markers

An Advanced Cardiac Risk Markers test assesses the level of specific proteins called cardiac markers in the blood and helps determine the risk of heart ailments. This test determines the amount of apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein A, homocysteine, and high-sensitivity CRP in the blood. These cardiac markers play a pivotal role in the functioning of the heart, and a deranged level of any of these might indicate a developing heart disease.

Know more about Advanced Cardiac Risk Markers

  • Serum Homocysteine

  • The Serum Homocysteine test measures your blood levels of homocysteine that serves in the body as an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine and cysteine. Methionine is an essential amino acid and antioxidant that synthesizes proteins. Cysteine is a nonessential amino acid synthesized from methionine. It reduces inflammation, increases communication between immune cells, and increases liver health.

    The human body generally has low levels of homocysteine. This is because our body uses vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid (also called folate or vitamin B9) to break down homocysteine rapidly, convert it into other compounds, and transport it to our body. However, high levels can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart attacks, damage to arteries, and brain stroke.

  • Lipoprotein A

  • The Lipoprotein A test measures the amount of lipoprotein A (Lp-A) particles in your blood. Lipoprotein A is a mixture of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and a protein called apolipoprotein a. Lp-A levels are largely determined by genetics. Lp-A levels are not significantly affected by diet, exercise, or lifestyle changes, unlike other types of cholesterol. That is why testing for Lp-A is essential, particularly for individuals with a strong family history of cardiovascular (heart or blood vessel) disease as it is considered an independent risk factor for heart attack and stroke. This test can help identify individuals who are at high risk, enabling early intervention to prevent future complications.

  • hsCRP (High Sensitive CRP)

  • An hsCRP (High Sensitive CRP) test is a state-of-the-art biochemical marker to predict potential risks of future diseases. This test is more sensitive than the standard CRP test and can also detect lower CRP levels in the blood. Its accuracy in predicting cardiovascular issues, autoimmune disorders, and other health issues makes it an excellent test to detect asymptomatic conditions with limited diagnosis.

  • Apolipoprotein - A1

  • An Apolipoprotein - A1 test helps check the levels of Apolipoprotein A1 in your blood. Apolipoprotein A1 is the major protein for the high-density lipid (HDL), also known as “good” cholesterol and helps in its transport. Apo A1 helps the HDL to take up cholesterol from the tissues and is bound by receptors in the liver where the cholesterol is destroyed. Assessing the levels of Apolipoprotein A1 directly reflects the high-density lipoprotein levels. In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease.

  • Apolipoprotein - B

  • The Apolipoprotein B test is used to evaluate the level of Apolipoprotein B in your blood. It is a type of protein that aids in the transportation of fat and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo B serves as the primary protein component of lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and chylomicrons. It binds to LDL or “bad” cholesterol, causing plaque accumulation in the blood vessels. This can lead to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease that can be life-threatening if left untreated.

  • Apolipoprotein B/A1 Ratio

  • An Apolipoprotein B/A1 Ratio test helps predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals at high risk, such as those who are obese, have a family history of heart disease, have high cholesterol, or have had similar health issues in the past. Apolipoprotein A1 is the primary protein associated with HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), and its increased concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein B is the primary protein associated with LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and other lipid molecules. An increase in LDL cholesterol is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, an Apolipoprotein B/A1 Ratio test is a key marker of developing potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) or heart-related ailments. 

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Microalbumin Creatinine Ratio, Urine

The Microalbumin Creatinine Ratio, Urine test compares albumin and creatinine excretion in your urine. Typically, the body filters out creatinine in the urine steadily. Comparing the ratio of urine albumin with creatinine in the same urine sample helps analyze if the body is excreting albumin at an increased rate. Elevated levels indicate increased urinary excretion of albumin, which can be an early sign of kidney damage that may need medical intervention.

Know more about Microalbumin Creatinine Ratio, Urine

  • Microalbumin / Creatinine Ratio

  • The Microalbumin / Creatinine Ratio test compares the level of albumin and creatinine excretion in your urine primarily used to assess kidney function, specifically regarding the kidneys' ability to filter small amounts of protein (albumin) from the blood into the urine. 

    The ratio of microalbumin to creatinine in your urine sample provides a more accurate assessment of kidney function by accounting for variations in urine concentration. It is typically calculated by dividing the amounts of albumin & creatinine in the urine, both measured in milligrams. This helps to standardize the results, as the concentration of creatinine in urine can vary depending on factors like hydration levels.

    Elevated levels of the Microalbumin / Creatinine Ratio indicate increased urinary excretion of albumin, which can be an early sign of kidney damage that needs medical intervention.

     

  • Urinary Creatinine

  • The Urinary Creatinine test measures the levels of creatinine in the urine. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscles’ wear and tear during energy production. The kidneys remove it from the body by filtering it from the blood and releasing it into the urine. Therefore, urine creatinine levels can be an indicator of how well the kidneys are working. This test is also useful for diagnosing or detecting kidney diseases and other conditions affecting your kidneys.

  • Microalbumin

  • The Microalbumin test measures the smallest amount of albumin present in your urine, serving as an indicator of kidney health, especially in individuals with conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. It plays a crucial role in identifying diabetic individuals who are at risk of developing chronic kidney disease. It also aids early detection, monitoring, and management of kidney disease and associated complications, enabling doctors to intervene promptly and implement measures to slow its progression.

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Kidney Function Test with eGFR

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen

  • The Blood Urea Nitrogen test measures the levels of urea nitrogen in the blood. Blood urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver when you eat food and the protein is metabolized into amino acids. This process leads to the production of ammonia that is further converted into urea. Both ammonia and urea are nitrogenous compounds. Your liver releases urea into the blood which is then carried out to the kidneys. In the kidneys, urea is filtered from the blood and flushed out of the body via urine. This is a continuous process, so a small amount of urea nitrogen always remains in the blood.

    In the case of a kidney or liver disease, there is a change in the amount of urea present in the blood. If your liver produces urea in an increased amount or if there is any problem in kidney functioning, there might be difficulty in filtering out the waste products from the blood, which can result in increased urea levels in the blood.

  • Serum Creatinine

  • The Serum Creatinine test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscles’ wear and tear during energy production. The kidneys remove it from the body by filtering it from the blood and releasing it into the urine. Therefore, blood creatinine levels indicate how well the kidneys are functioning in filtering and removing waste products from the blood. Generally, higher creatinine levels in the blood may indicate reduced kidney function, while lower levels may suggest decreased muscle mass.

  • Serum Electrolytes

  • The Serum Electrolytes test measures three important electrolytes in the body: sodium, potassium, and chloride. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that move fluid in and out of the cells. They transport the nutrients into the cells and flush out the waste products. They also help maintain water balance and pH levels by keeping the acids and bases in your blood balanced. Hence, the body must maintain an optimal balance of fluids and electrolytes for proper functioning.

    This further contains

    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Sodium
  • BUN/Creatinine Ratio

  • The BUN/Creatinine Ratio test helps compare the levels of blood urea nitrogen to that of creatinine in your body. Urea is a waste product that is formed in the liver when you eat protein, which is then metabolized into amino acids. This process leads to the production of ammonia that is further converted into urea. Later, the urea is passed out of your body through the urine. On the other hand, creatinine is a byproduct produced by muscles during energy production. Therefore, the more muscle you have, the more creatinine your body produces. The kidneys remove both the urea and creatinine via urine, and this test determines how well your kidneys are functioning.

  • Blood Urea

  • The Blood Urea test measures the level of urea in the blood. Urea is a byproduct of protein metabolism. Proteins you consume in your diet are digested and converted into amino acids, which are then utilized by the body. This metabolic process produces a toxic byproduct known as ammonia. Ammonia is then rapidly converted into urea by your liver. Urea is comparatively less toxic than ammonia and is transported to the kidneys via the blood. The kidneys then filter it out through the urine. This process continues and the body keeps producing and eliminating urea, maintaining its low and steady levels in the blood.

  • Uric Acid

  • An Uric Acid test determines the level of uric acid in your body. Uric acid is a nitrogenous compound produced by the metabolic breakdown of purine. Purines are present as nitrogenous bases in the DNA and are also found in food like red meat and seafood.

    Most uric acid dissolves in the blood and goes into your kidneys. From there, it passes through your body via the urine. Decreased elimination of uric acid is often a result of impaired kidney function due to kidney disease. In many cases, the exact cause of excess uric acid is unknown. Doctors seldom need to test for low levels of uric acid.

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (estimated)

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