Blood Grouping

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Overview
Interpretations
FAQ's

Overview of Blood Grouping

What is Blood Grouping?

Blood Grouping or Blood Typing Test is a laboratory test performed to identify the blood group of a person.

Sample Type

The sample type collected for Blood Grouping is: Blood

Preparation for Blood Grouping

  • No special preparation required

Why Get Tested for Blood Grouping?


Understand more about Blood Grouping


The blood group of a person is denoted on the basis of certain specific antigen markers present on the surface of the red blood cells. These marker antigens are glycoproteins and help the body to recognise its own type of RBCs. According to ABO and Rh blood group systems, three types of antigen markers are commonly found on RBCs, namely A, B, and Rh, and the presence or absence of these antigen markers determines the blood type of a person. Thus, a person with antigen A belongs to blood group A, one with antigen B belongs to blood group B, those with both antigens A and B belongs to group AB, while those without either antigen A or B belongs to group O. Also, people who have Rh antigen on their RBCs are Rh+ (positive), while those who do not are Rh- (negative).

Antibodies are naturally created by the body against incompatible blood antigens. People with blood group A have anti-B antibodies against type B antigens and those with blood group B have anti-A antibodies against type A antigens. People with blood group AB do not have any of these antibodies, while those with blood group O have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. Rh antibodies are produced by people of Rh- blood group upon exposure to Rh antigens in Rh+ blood type. Blood transfusion between incompatible blood types causes an antigen-antibody reaction which causes the RBCs to clump together and be destroyed. Hence blood groups of donor and recipient must match to ensure success of the blood transfusion or organ transplant.

The antigen-antibody reaction between incompatible blood types forms the basis of the Blood Typing Test. The collected specimen is treated with collected or synthetic A, B, and Rh antibodies and observed for agglutination (clumping). If agglutination (clumping) of RBCs is seen upon treatment with anti-A antibodies, the sample is of blood type A. If agglutination is seen upon treatment with anti-B antibodies, the sample is of blood type B. If agglutination does not occur upon treatment with either anti-A or anti-B antibodies, the sample is of blood group O, and if agglutination occurs with both these antibodies, the sample is of blood group AB. Occurrence of agglutination upon treatment with Rh antibodies indicates Rh+ blood type, while no agglutination indicates Rh- blood type.

·         ABO Typing:

Sample

Anti-A

Anti-B

Blood Type

1

Agglutination

No agglutination

A

2

No agglutination

Agglutination

B

3

Agglutination

Agglutination

AB

4

No agglutination

No agglutination

O

·         Rh Typing:

Sample

Anti-Rh

Blood Type

1

Agglutination

Rh+

2

No agglutination

Rh-




What Results of Blood Grouping mean?

Interpretations

According to occurrence of agglutination upon treatment with antibodies, human blood can be grouped into 8 types according to the ABO and Rh grouping systems:

·         A+

·         A-

·         B+

·         B-

·         O+

·         O-

·         AB+

·         AB-




Patient Concerns about Blood Grouping

Frequently Asked Questions about Blood Grouping

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle attached is used to withdraw blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm generally from the inner side of the elbow area. The doctor, nurse or the phlebotomist will tie an elastic band around your arm which will help the blood vessels to swell with blood and hence makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You may feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected is then sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, as this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, rarely, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma (blood collection under the skin) formation, bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
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Sahyadri Speciality Labs is committed to provide the highest quality of Medical Laboratory services. There is a continual effort to ensure that the staff of the lab understands the Quality Policy & all the quality documentation, as well as follows the Quality manual and implements the Quality System Procedures all the time. By employing QMS, the lab strives to achieve the highest standard of service to provide the most reliable results, nearest to the true value and at most competitive rates. The lab is committed to good & ethical professional practices giving highest priority to client’s confidentiality and ensuring the reporting of the test values without any bias or influence. The lab implements the QMS so as to conform to ISO 15189:2007 and NABL 112 with the objective of Reducing reporting errors to the minimum, Minimizing customer complaints, Achieving maximum growth of the lab.
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