Overview of Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA
What is Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA?
Preparation for Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA
- The sample should be collected before a digital rectal examination or rectal prostatic ultrasonography is performed and before or several days after the prostate biopsy.
Why Get Tested for Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA?
The PSA (Free) Test is performed:
· To identify the need for Prostate biopsy in patients with increased PSA (Total) levels
· To differentiate between Prostate cancer and other benign conditions of the Prostate gland like BPH
Understand more about Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA
PSA is a protein which is secreted by the prostate gland. The prostate gland is a male accessory reproductive organ, the secretion of which contributes to the formation of the seminal fluid. Most of the PSA produced is secreted in the seminal fluid along with prostatic secretions and only a small amount is secreted into the bloodstream. PSA is considered to be a tumor marker since its levels in the blood are elevated in prostate cancer and BPH, and it is used as a preliminary screening test before further diagnostic procedures.
PSA in blood is found either complexed PSA (bound to other proteins) or free PSA. The PSA Test usually calculates to the total PSA levels in blood including both free and complexed forms whereas the PSA (Free) test measures the levels of unbound or free PSA in blood.
Some doctors prefer to measure free PSA in patients with a total PSA level between 4 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml rather than subjecting everyone with an elevated PSA to a biopsy as it’s an invasive procedure.
What Results of Prostate Specific Antigen (Free) PSA mean?
The normal value of PSA (total) in blood is below 4.0 ng/ml
Total PSA levels roughly between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml are considered in “grey zone” and the probability of finding prostate cancer based on % free PSA in such cases is given below:
% free PSA
Probability of prostate cancer
Greater than 25%
Some patients with a “normal” total PSA may have cancer. So, some doctors order both tests at the same time as a low total PSA and a low percentage of free PSA would probably indicate biopsy in these cases.