Test Detail
Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's

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Written by
Dr. Betina Chandolia
BDS, MDS - Oral Pathology and Microbiology
Reviewed by
Dr. Lalit Mohan Gupta
MBBS, MD - Microbiology
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Urine Potassium

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You need to provide
Urine
This test is for
Male, Female
Test Preparation
  1. No special preparation required

Overview


What is Urine Potassium?

Potassium is both a mineral and an electrolyte. It plays an important role in a number of body activities like the functioning of the nerves and muscles.  The Potassium Test is performed to measure the concentration of potassium in the urine.

Why is Urine Potassium done?

The Urine Potassium Test is performed:

·         As a part of routine health check-ups to measure potassium levels in urine

·         As part of check-up to diagnose kidney diseases

·         To evaluate the cause of symptoms like muscular weakness, irregular heartbeats, cardiac arrhythmia, etc.

·         To help diagnose conditions related to the adrenal gland like Conn’s Syndrome

·         In case of abnormal results in blood potassium test

·         At regular intervals to monitor the progress of disease or condition and treatment effectiveness while undergoing treatment for hypertension, kidney diseases, and metabolic acidosis



What does Urine Potassium Measure?

Potassium is one of the essential body electrolytes along with sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, etc. As an electrolyte, potassium helps to regulate the amount of fluids present in the body and to maintain a correct pH balance. It performs a vital role in cellular metabolism. It also regulates the transport of nutrients and waste products in and out of cells. It is also essential for muscle activity.

The main source of potassium for the body is dietary sources. The amount of potassium required by the body is absorbed, and the remaining unabsorbed potassium is excreted by the kidneys. Body potassium is maintained within a small normal range principally by the hormone called aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the nephrons in the kidneys and activates a sodium-potassium pump which helps the body to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium. This helps to maintain the potassium concentration in the blood within its normal range. Deviation of potassium concentration from its normal range gives rise to hyperkalemia (high potassium level in blood) or hypokalemia (low potassium level in blood). Both these conditions may produce a number of symptoms, and may even be fatal if not controlled.

Interpreting Urine Potassium results


Interpretations

Normal range:

·         Below 40 years age:

Males: 11 to 80meq/L

Females: 17 to 145meq/L

·         Above 40 years age:

Males: 17 to 99meq/L

Females: 22 to 164meq/L

Hypokalemia or low potassium is indicated if urine potassium concentration lies below the normal range.

Hyperkalemia or high potassium is indicated if urine potassium concentration lies above the normal range.



Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Urine Potassium


Frequently Asked Questions about Urine Potassium

Q. When can false results appear in the Potassium Test?
False results may appear in the potassium test due to improper collection and handling of the blood specimen. If you clench and relax your fist too much during specimen collection, it will cause an elevated potassium level in your blood sample. Rough handling of the collected specimen or delay of the specimen in reaching the lab may cause potassium to leak out of the blood cells into the serum which will show a falsely increased levels.
Q. Is there any preparation required before the Urine Potassium test?
Inform the doctor about any medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before the Urine Potassium Test.
Q. How is Urine Potassium Test performed?
This test is performed on a random urine sample or on a 24-hour urine sample. For the random urine sample, you will have to urinate in a specially provided sterile container during the test which will be analyzed in the laboratory. For the 24-hour urine sample, urinate over a period of 24 hours into the specially provided sterile container for testing.
Q. Is there any risk associated with the Urine Potassium Test?
There are no risks associated with the test.
Q. What other tests can be prescribed by your doctor in case the results of the Urine Potassium Test are not normal?
Other tests that may be prescribed upon appearance of an abnormal result in the Urine Potassium Test include: · Blood Potassium Test · Electrolyte Panel Test · Kidney Function Test (KFT) · Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Q. What is hypokalemia?
Hypokalemia is a condition where the blood potassium levels are below the normal range. This may occur due to: · Low dietary potassium · Chronic vomiting and diarrhea · Kidney diseases · Hyperaldosteronism or excess production of hormone aldosterone · Acetaminophen overdose · Insulin in diabetics, especially if the condition is poorly managed · Eating disorders like anorexia · Diuretic therapy · Certain medications like corticosteroids, some antibiotic and antifungal agents, and laxatives · Cushing’s syndrome
Q. What are the symptoms of hypokalemia?
Symptoms of hypokalemia include: · Fatigue · Palpitations · A tingling sensation or feeling of numbness · Constipation · Muscle weakness or spasms which may lead to muscle damage · Feeling lightheaded or dizzy · Irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrhythmia
Q. What is hyperkalemia?
Hyperkalemia is the condition where blood potassium levels rise higher than the normal range. This may occur due to: · Kidney disease · Addison disease · Extensive tissue injury resulting in muscle fiber breakdown and destruction of red blood cells · Infection · Diabetes Type 1 · Dehydration · Consumption of excess dietary potassium or potassium supplements · Respiratory and metabolic acidosis · Hypoaldosteronism or reduced production or activity of hormone aldosterone · Excess potassium in intravenous fluid · Some medications like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ACE enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and some diuretics
Q. What are the symptoms of hyperkalemia?
Symptoms of hyperkalemia include: · Chest pain · Difficulty in breathing · Palpitations · Irregular heartbeat · Nausea and vomiting · Irregular or weak pulse · Stopping of heartbeat
Q. Which food items are a good source of potassium?
Dietary sources form the principal source of potassium. Some very commonly available food items rich in potassium are: · Bananas · Sweet potato · Tomato · Watermelon · Spinach · Beans · Lentils · Beets · Low-fat milk · Yogurt
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