Protein - Random (Spot) Urine
What is Protein - Random (Spot) Urine?
Protein - Random (Spot) Urine Test is done to monitor the function of the kidney or any damage in the kidney. Proteins are known as building blocks of the body. The function of proteins is to nourish tissues, transport hormones, vitamins, and other essential nutrients along with maintaining a sufficient amount of fluid circulation throughout the body. In a normally functioning kidney, traces of proteins are passed into the urine. But, in case there is any disruption in the kidney function, proteins start to pass through the kidney to the urine.
Why is Protein - Random (Spot) Urine done?
To screen for excess protein in the urine
To monitor kidney function
To detect kidney damage
To screen nephrotic syndromes
What does Protein - Random (Spot) Urine Measure?
This test measures protein released into the urine. The normal protein secreted is less than 150 mg/day and albumin less than 30 mg/day. It has been observed that in conditions like pregnancy, infections, stress, diet, heavy exercise, or exposure to cold the levels of the protein rise temporarily. If these high levels of protein in urine continue to rise, it suggests damage to the kidney. Due to this damage, the basic function of kidney like filtration gets affected which leads to increased levels of protein in the urine. The liver produces protein albumin which comprises of 50% to 60% of the protein in the blood. The rest of the content comprises of a mixture of globulins which includes immunoglobulins.
In chronic (from a long time) diseases like diabetes and hypertension, the increase in protein levels in urine indicates kidney damage. However, early kidney damage does not produce any symptoms. With time as the damage increases, symptoms such as swelling of the face, neck, hands, feet along with shortness of breath, nausea, and fatigue occur. In conditions like multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and amyloidosis there is excessive production of protein which leads to the high secretion of protein in the urine.
Interpreting Protein - Random (Spot) Urine results
Normal reference range irrespective of all age
Protein Total, Random Urine < 14.00 mg/dL
(Reference range may vary from lab to lab)
Levels are increased in diseases like:
Hypertension (High blood pressure)
Nephrotic syndrome (High amounts of protein is passed through the kidneys into the urine)
Drug nephrotoxicity (Toxicity in kidneys due to drugs)