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Complete Blood Count

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4.1
NABL, ISO
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Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's
Tests Included
Complete Blood Count

Overview of CBC

What is CBC?

A complete blood count (CBC) test is a group of tests that provides information about blood cells like Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC) and platelets. It is routinely performed to provide an overview of a patient's general health status.

Why is CBC done?

  • To monitor your overall health as part of a routine check-up

  • To help detect a variety of disorders including infections, anemia, diseases of the immune system, and blood cancers

  • To monitor an existing blood disorder

  • To monitor treatment that is known to affect blood cells such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy


What does CBC Measure?

Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma (yellowish coloured liquid). The blood cells include red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes).


Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant blood cells. RBCs contain the hemoglobin which helps in the transportation of oxygen to the tissues. RBC count is the measurement of number of RBCs in a given volume of blood.


Packed Cell Volume (PCV) or Hematocrit (Hct) is the measurement of the blood volume occupied by RBCs. It is expressed in percentage.


White blood cells (WBCs) are key components of the immune system and thus protect the body from various infections and cancers. Total Leucocyte count (TLC) is the measurement of the total number of leukocytes (WBCs) in a given volume of blood.


There are five types of WBCs:

  1. Neutrophils

  2. Basophils

  3. Eosinophils

  4. Lymphocytes

  5. Monocytes


Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC) determines the percentage of different types of WBCs.

Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils are called Granulocytes because of the presence of granules inside these cells.


Absolute count of different types of WBCs is the measurement of their absolute numbers in the given volume of blood.


Platelet count - Platelets (also called thrombocytes) are disc-shaped cell fragments without a nucleus that help in blood clotting. Platelet count is the measurement of the number of platelets in a given volume of blood.


Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is a measurement of the average size of platelets.


Hemoglobin (Hb) -  Hemoglobin (Hb) is a protein found in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues, exchanges the oxygen for carbon dioxide, and then carries  the carbon dioxide back to the lungs where it is exchanged for oxygen.


Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) is the average volume of a red blood cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of red cells.


Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)is a measurement of the variability of red blood cell size

Preparation for CBC

  • No special preparation required

Sample Type for CBC

The sample type collected for Complete Blood Count is: Blood

Interpreting CBC results

Interpretations

Hemoglobin

  • Males: 13.2 - 16.2 gm/dL

  • Females: 12.0 - 15.2 gm/dL

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)

  • Males: 4.3  - 6.2 x million/μL

  • Females: 3.8  - 5.5 million/μL

  • Infant/Child: 3.8 - 5.5 million/μL

White Blood Cell Count (WBC)

  • Differential Leucocyte Count

        - Neutrophils - 35-80%

        - Lymphocytes - 20-50%

        - Monocytes - 2-12%

        - Eosinophils - 0-7%

        - Basophils - 0-2%

Platelet Count (Plt) - 1.5 - 4.5 lacs/μL

Hematocrit (Hct)

  • Males: 40-52%

  • Females: 37-46%

  • Child: 31-43%

Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) - 35-47 fL

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

  • Males: 82-102 fL

  • Females: 78-101 fL

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) - 27-34 pg

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) - 31-35 gm/dL

Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) - 6.0-9.5 fL

Meaning of Abnormal CBC Test Results

  • Hemoglobin

Decreased levels - Anemia


Increased levels - Polycythemia


  • WBC

 Decreased levels - Aplastic anemia, Bone marrow disorders, Autoimmune conditions
Increased levels - Infections, Inflammatory disorders, Leukemia, Myeloproliferative disorders

  • Neutrophil count

Decreased levels (Neutropenia) - Aplastic anemia, Autoimmune disorders, Drug reactions or Chemotherapy
Increased levels  (Neutrophilia) - Acute bacterial infections, Inflammation, Burns

  • Lymphocyte count

Decreased levels (Lymphopenia) - Bone marrow damage, Aplastic anemia, Autoimmune disorders
Increased levels (Lymphocytosis) - Acute viral infections, Tuberculosis, Lymphocytic leukemia

  • Monocyte count

Decreased levels - Bone marrow damage
Increased levels (Monocytosis) - Chronic infections like tuberculosis, Bacterial endocarditis, Collagen vascular disorders, Inflammatory bowel diseases

  • Eosinophil count

Decreased levels - Rare and medically insignificant
Increased levels (Eosinophilia) - Asthma, Allergies, Drug reactions, Parasitic infections

  • Basophil count

Decreased levels - Medically insignificant
Increased levels (Basophilia) - Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

  • Platelet count

Decreased levels (Thrombocytosis) - Blood Loss, Chronic Infection or Inflammatory Disease, Removal of spleen
Increased levels (Thrombocytopenia) - Viral infections like dengue fever, bleeding or Platelet disorders



Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about CBC

Frequently Asked Questions about Complete Blood Count

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle is used to withdraw blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm, generally from the inner side of the elbow area. The doctor, nurse or the phlebotomist will tie an elastic band around your arm which will help the blood vessels to swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution. The needle is then inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You may feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample, once collected, is then sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. What are the symptoms of Anemia?
Many people having anemia are unaware of it as the symptoms can be minor. The symptoms can be because of any underlying cause or the anemia itself. The symptoms of anemia usually include some of the following: Pale skin, Weakness, Shortness of breath, Fainting, Palpitations, Chest pain, Restless legs syndrome. On examination, the signs exhibited may include pallor (pale skin, lining mucosa, conjunctiva and nail beds), but this is not a reliable sign.
Q. What are the causes of Anemia?
The causes of anemia may be classified as impaired red blood cell (RBC) production, increased RBC destruction (hemolytic anemias), blood loss and fluid overload (hypervolemia).
Q. Is there any preparation required before the test?
Inform the doctor about the medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before this test.
+ more

Tests Included in Complete Blood Count(24 tests)

  • Hemoglobin
  • Differential leucocyte Count(includes 6 tests)

    Differential Eosinophil Count

    Differential Neutrophil Count

    Differential Monocyte Count

    Differential Granulocyte Count

    Differential Lymphocyte Count

    Differential Basophil Count

  • Absolute Monocyte Counts
  • Red Blood Cell Count
  • RDW SD
  • Platelet Count
  • Total Leucocyte Count
  • Packed Cell Volume
  • Red Cell Distribution Width
  • Mean Corpuscular Volume
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
  • Mean Platelet Volume
  • Absolute Leucocyte Count(includes 6 tests)

    Absolute Eosinophil Count

    Absolute Lymphocyte Count

    Absolute Basophil Count

    Absolute Granulocyte Count

    Absolute Monocyte Count

    Absolute Neutrophil Count

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NABL

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