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Anti Nuclear Antibody

675
4.2
NABL, ISO
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Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's
Anti Nuclear Antibody

Overview of ANA

What is ANA?

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are antibodies produced by the immune system of the body against protein markers found in the nucleus of its own cells. The Antinuclear Antibody Test screens for the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in blood.

Why is ANA done?

The Antinuclear Antibody Test is performed:

·  To determine the presence of an autoimmune disease like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

·   To evaluate the possible presence of autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders (CTDs) other than SLE such as Polymyositis, Scleroderma, Sjögren's syndrome etc.

What does ANA Measure?

The immune system of the body is responsible for differentiating between the body’s own cells and foreign cells, like pathogens. Once the foreign cells are identified, they are then targeted and destroyed. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system of the body is unable to recognize certain cells as the body’s own cells and starts an immune response against them which results in their destruction. The recognition of ‘self’ and ‘non-self’ cells is mediated by certain proteins present on the surface of cells or inside them. When the immune system identifies a cell as foreign or ‘non-self’, it produces antibodies against these cells to destroy them. Antibodies produced in an autoimmune disease are called autoantibodies.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are autoantibodies that are produced against protein markers present in the nucleus of certain cells of the body. They are produced in a number of autoimmune diseases but are most commonly produced in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).

The Antinuclear Antibody Test can be performed either by Immunoassay method (ELISA) or Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) method to detect ANA in blood. Both these tests may be used by some laboratories together: the Immunoassay method (ELISA) screens for the presence of antinuclear antibodies, and IFA method subsequently confirms the positive or equivocal Immunoassay results.

ANA by Immunoassay method (ELISA) utilizes a mixture of known anti-nuclear antigens and is fairly simple to perform, can be automated and provides fairly objective results.


Preparation for ANA

  • No special preparation required

Sample Type for ANA

The sample type collected for Anti Nuclear Antibody is: Blood

Interpreting ANA results

Interpretations

Results are provided as positive/negative or with an index value against a cutoff value.

A positive ANA test can also be seen in healthy individuals, particularly the elderly or in diseases other than Connective Tissue Disorders (CTD), where it has no diagnostic value.


Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about ANA

Frequently Asked Questions about Anti Nuclear Antibody

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle is used to withdraw blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm generally from the inner side of the elbow area. The doctor, nurse or the phlebotomist will tie an elastic band around your arm which will help the blood vessels to swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You may feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected is then sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. Is there any preparation required before the test?
Inform the doctor about the medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before this test.
Q. What factors can falsely affect the test results?
The Antinuclear Antibody Test can be affected by a number of factors including: · Certain medications like procainamide, hydralazine, phenytoin, etc. · Old age · Long-term infection · Viral infection
Q. What additional tests can be prescribed by your doctor in case the result of ANA test is not normal?
Additional tests that may be prescribed in case of abnormal Antinuclear Antibody test result are: · Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Panel Test · Anti-dsDNA Antibody Test · Anti-Centromere Antibody Test · Anti-Histone Antibody Test · Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody Test
Q. What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease which shows severe symptoms alternating with mild symptoms in phases. Common symptoms of SLE include: · Red skin rash shaped like a butterfly across the face · Increased sensitivity towards light · Pain and inflammation in the joints · Muscle pain · Fatigue and weakness · Hair loss · Anemia · Raynaud’s Phenomenon (fingers tingling and turn blue or white) Further symptoms may appear specific to the organ system targeted by the immune system.
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Provided By

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General Diagnostics Pvt Ltd is a medical technology company and provider of high-end Preventive Screening and Diagnostic tests with a special focus on metabolomics. General Diagnostics Pvt Ltd is also a Technology Solution Provider to laboratories world-wide offering services based on high end chromatographic instruments. Since its inception about a decade ago, General Diagnostics Pvt Ltd has been continually evolving, transforming and thriving in this ever changing field through its innovations, operational efficiency, and creation of breakthrough solutions. General Diagnostics Pvt Ltd has to its credit the world's most comprehensive genetic metabolic screening test, in addition to several other preventive tests which help address health conditions like diabetes, weight problems, food intolerances, allergies and dysbiosis.

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