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Blood Grouping

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NABL, CAP
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Overview
Interpretations
FAQ's
Blood Grouping

Overview of Blood Grouping

What is Blood Grouping?

Blood Grouping or Blood Typing Test is a laboratory test performed to identify the blood group of a person.

Sample Type

The sample type collected for Blood Grouping is: Blood

Preparation for Blood Grouping

  • No special preparation required

Why Get Tested for Blood Grouping?

The Blood Grouping Test is performed:

·         Before receiving a transfusion of blood or blood components to determine compatibility with donated blood

·         When donating blood, tissue, organ, or bone marrow or getting registered as a potential donor

·         Before pregnancy or during pregnancy to determine the risk of Rh factor incompatibility between the mother and fetus



Understand more about Blood Grouping

The blood group of a person is denoted on the basis of certain specific antigen markers present on the surface of the red blood cells. These marker antigens are glycoproteins and help the body to recognize its own type of RBCs. According to ABO and Rh blood group systems, three types of antigen markers are commonly found on RBCs, namely A, B, and Rh, and the presence or absence of these antigen markers determines the blood type of a person. Thus, a person with antigen A belongs to blood group A, one with antigen B belongs to blood group B, those with both antigens A and B belongs to group AB, while those without either antigen A or B belongs to group O. Also, people who have Rh antigen on their RBCs are Rh+ (positive), while those who do not are Rh- (negative).

Antibodies are naturally created by the body against incompatible blood antigens. People with blood group A have anti-B antibodies against type B antigens and those with blood group B have anti-A antibodies against type A antigens. People with blood group AB do not have any of these antibodies, while those with blood group O have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. Rh antibodies are produced by people of Rh- blood group upon exposure to Rh antigens in Rh+ blood type. Blood transfusion between incompatible blood types causes an antigen-antibody reaction which causes the RBCs to clump together and be destroyed. Hence blood groups of donor and recipient must match to ensure the success of the blood transfusion or organ transplant.

The antigen-antibody reaction between incompatible blood types forms the basis of the Blood Typing Test. The collected specimen is treated with collected or synthetic A, B, and Rh antibodies and observed for agglutination (clumping). If agglutination (clumping) of RBCs is seen upon treatment with anti-A antibodies, the sample is of blood type A. If agglutination is seen upon treatment with anti-B antibodies, the sample is of blood type B. If agglutination does not occur upon treatment with either anti-A or anti-B antibodies, the sample is of blood group O, and if agglutination occurs with both these antibodies, the sample is of blood group AB. The occurrence of agglutination upon treatment with Rh antibodies indicates Rh+ blood type, while no agglutination indicates Rh- blood type.

·         ABO Typing:

Sample

Anti-A

Anti-B

Blood Type

1

Agglutination

No agglutination

A

2

No agglutination

Agglutination

B

3

Agglutination

Agglutination

AB

4

No agglutination

No agglutination

O

·         Rh Typing:

Sample

Anti-Rh

Blood Type

1

Agglutination

Rh+

2

No agglutination

Rh-



What Results of Blood Grouping mean?

Interpretations

According to occurrence of agglutination upon treatment with antibodies, human blood can be grouped into 8 types according to the ABO and Rh grouping systems:

·         A+

·         A-

·         B+

·         B-

·         O+

·         O-

·         AB+

·         AB-



Patient Concerns about Blood Grouping

Frequently Asked Questions about Blood Grouping

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle attached is used to withdraw blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm generally from the inner side of the elbow area. The doctor, nurse or the phlebotomist will tie an elastic band around your arm which will help the blood vessels to swell with blood and hence makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You may feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected is then sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, as this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, rarely, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma (blood collection under the skin) formation, bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
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Provided By

NABL

CAP

For over a hundred years, human pathology has been one of the keystones of medicine and rightly so at SRL, we offer our patients world-class Pathology services because their well-being is of the utmost importance to us. Pathology is quite simply the scientific study of the overall response of your body to any foreign influence, i.e., disease. Actually, we use this knowledge to diagnose & subsequently treat your ailment. What we basically do is carefully compare the normal structure and function of a human body (anatomy and physiology) to the abnormal structure and function we witness in an unwell human. Doing this is the most crucial phase & we take note of even the minutest details while adjudging the extent of your ailment because one slip can lead to an incorrect diagnosis, posing serious threat to your health. Our experts ensure that they are extremely careful while analyzing the samples. This is where our advanced technology chips in. SRL is proud to host state-of-the-art equipments based on the latest technology for a speedy and accurate result. We do not take any chances whatsoever with your health & well-being. Avail our Pathology services with no hesitation. You are always in good hands with SRL.

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