Test Detail
Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's

Content created by

Written by
Dr. Betina Chandolia
BDS, MDS - Oral Pathology and Microbiology
Reviewed by
Dr. Ashish Ranjan
MBBS, MD (Pharmacology)
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Glucose - Random Blood

(RBG)
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Glucose - Random Blood
You need to provide
Blood
This test is for
Male, Female
Test Preparation
  1. No special preparation required

Overview


What is RBG?

The random blood glucose test is done to measure the levels of glucose circulating in the blood. This test is done to diagnose diabetes. However, other tests are required to confirm the diagnosis.


Why is RBG done?

  1. As a part of routine preventive health check-up 

  2. If you have symptoms of high blood glucose such as increased appetite, increased thirst, increased urination, and blurring of vision 

  3. If you have risk factors for diabetes like high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, obesity, or family history of diabetes 

  4. If you are pregnant 

  5. If you are already a diabetic


What does RBG Measure?

The random blood glucose test is done to measure the levels of glucose at any point of the time. This test provides speedy diagnosis of diabetes. Also, it is helpful for diabetic patients who require a supplementary dose of insulin in case of emergency. 

Glucose is the main source of energy for the body. Carbohydrates consumed in the diet are broken down in the body to form glucose, which is absorbed by the intestines and transported by the blood to various organs. The cells of these organs utilize the glucose to produce energy when required, and the excess is stored either as glycogen in the liver for short-term storage or in fat tissues as triglycerides for long-term storage. The uptake, utilization, and storage of glucose after it is absorbed in the intestine is facilitated by a hormone called insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. Insulin influences the transport of glucose to the organs like heart, brain, working muscles, etc. It also directs the storage of excess glucose. The action of insulin reduces sugar levels in the blood.

After a meal, the levels of sugar increase in blood and insulin is secreted in response until they become normal. If glucose levels fall too low in blood, another pancreatic hormone called glucagon is released. This hormone directs the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood. The insulin and glucagon hormones create a feedback mechanism to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Imbalance in their activity causes an excess or shortage of blood sugar.

The random blood glucose test helps to determine the levels of glucose at any point of the time. To confirm the diagnosis, follow-up tests are required which include Glucose - Fasting Blood and Oral glucose tolerance test.

High levels of sugar in the blood indicate diabetes or resistance to insulin. Type 1 Diabetes is caused when insulin is not produced or produced in very little quantity. Type 2 Diabetes is caused when insulin produced is not utilized effectively by the body. In both these cases, blood sugar levels rise, while cells remain deprived of nutrition.

Interpreting RBG results


Interpretations

  • According to American Diabetic Association and WHO,  if your random blood glucose is greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl, you have diabetes.

  • If the levels are between 140 and 200 mg/dl, you are at increased risk of developing diabetes (Pre-diabetic). 

Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about RBG


Frequently Asked Questions about Glucose - Random Blood

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle is used to withdraw blood from a blood vessel in your arm. The healthcare provider will tie an elastic band around your arm to make the blood vessels swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You will feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected will then be sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. What factors other than hormones and diet affect blood sugar levels?
Yes, blood sugar levels can be increased by certain medications. It has also been observed that during pregnancy the levels of sugar fluctuates. Although temporarily, but stress also can lead to abnormal changes in levels of blood sugar.
Q. What other tests can be prescribed to diagnose diabetes in case the result of Fasting Blood Glucose test is not normal?
If the result of Fasting Blood Glucose test is not normal then the doctor can prescribe other tests such as Urine Glucose Test, Blood Glucose - Postprandial (PP), Glucose - Fasting blood Test, Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test or HbA1c Test, and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.
Q. What is Hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia refers to a condition where the blood glucose level is above the normal range. This condition may indicate prediabetes or diabetes and may cause significant health problems.
Q. What are the symptoms of Hyperglycemia?
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia include: Increased thirst, frequent urge to urinate, weakness, tiredness (fatigue), blurring of vision and slow wound healing.
Q. What is Hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia is the condition where the blood sugar levels fall below normal. This is commonly found in case of nutritional deficiency.
Q. What are the symptoms of Hypoglycemia?
Symptoms of Hypoglycemia include: Excessive sweating, frequent hunger, shivering or trembling, confusion and blurring of vision
Q. What are the risk factors for Diabetes?
Diabetes can be caused by various reasons. The most common risk factors for diabetes include being obese or overweight with low physical activity, having a blood relative diagnosed with Diabetes, or having been diagnosed with hypertension. Other reasons which can cause diabetes could be low High-Density Lipoproteins or high triglyceride levels, being diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or having been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Q. Is there any special preparation required for the test?
No, there is no special preparation required for the test.
Q. What are the common complications of diabetes?
Diabetes causes an increase in blood sugar levels. Increased sugar levels, if not controlled, can cause severe damage to the muscles and nerves. This may give rise to a number of complications over a period of time. Some common complications of uncontrolled diabetes include heart diseases like coronary artery disease, heart attack, diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina) which may cause blindness, diabetic neuropathy (damage to the nerves) at various parts of the body. It may also cause diabetic nephropathy (damage to the kidneys) resulting in chronic loss of kidney function and diabetic foot which can cause foot ulcers that may turn gangrenous. Apart from these, uncontrolled diabetes may also lead to other severe conditions like hearing impairment, a number of skin conditions, and may even lead to death.
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