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Lactate Dehyderogenase, Serum

350
4.2
NABL, ISO
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Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's

Overview of LDH

What is LDH?

Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the production of energy from glucose found in all the cells of the body. It is secreted into the blood when there is any damage to body tissues. The Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test measures the levels of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in the blood.

Why is LDH done?

The Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test is performed:

·         To determine the presence and extent of tissue damage

·         To detect progressive diseases like anemia, severe infections, etc.

·         To monitor disease progress and treatment efficacy for liver and kidney diseases

·     To help determine the stage and progress of certain cancers like lymphoma, leukemia, etc., and monitor treatment efficacy



What does LDH Measure?

Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme which plays an essential role in the production of energy from glucose. It is present in all the cells of the body, with the highest concentrations being in the cells of heart, lungs, muscles, liver, kidneys, and blood. Normally, only a small amount of the enzyme is found in the serum outside blood cells. However, in certain conditions of damage to the cells, lactate dehydrogenase is secreted out of the cells into the serum, where its concentration rises. Thus, the Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test is a nonspecific test that helps to determine the presence of conditions causing tissue damage somewhere in the body. Further tests are performed to identify the exact cause and location of these conditions.

The total lactate dehydrogenase in the body consists of five different forms of the enzymes (isoenzymes) named LDH-1 to LDH-5. The isoenzymes are present in different concentrations in different organs of the body. For example, LDH-1 and LDH-2 are most abundant in the cells of the heart, while LDH-5 is most abundant in the liver. Although the total LDH levels indicate tissue damage somewhere in the body, testing for the different isoenzymes can help identify the location of such damage.

Lactate dehydrogenase is also secreted into other body fluids in case of damage to the body tissues. It is also produced by bacteria and can be thus used to help identify bacterial meningitis.



Preparation for LDH

  • No special preparation required

Sample Type for LDH

The sample type collected for Lactate Dehyderogenase, Serum is: Blood

Interpreting LDH results

Interpretations

Normal range (Approx.):

·         Newborns: 160 to 450 units/L

·         Infants: 100 to 250 units/L

·         Child: 60 to 170 units/L

·         Adult/elderly adult: 100 to 190 units/L

Higher than normal levels of lactate dehydrogenase indicates the presence of conditions causing damage to the body tissues. Further tests are performed to determine the exact location and extent of the condition.




Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about LDH

Frequently Asked Questions about Lactate Dehyderogenase, Serum

Q. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. A syringe with a fine needle is used to withdraw blood from a blood vessel in your arm. The healthcare provider will tie an elastic band around your arm to make the blood vessels swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be asked to tightly clench your fist. Once the veins are clearly visible, the area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to collect the sample. You will feel a tiny pinprick during the procedure. Blood sample once collected will then be sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk associated with this test?
There is no risk associated with the test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. Is there any preparation required before the test?
Inform the doctor about the medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before this test.
Q. What other tests can be prescribed by your doctor in case the results of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test are not normal?
Other tests that may be prescribed upon appearance of an abnormal result in the Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test include: · Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme Test · Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Test · Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Test · Alkaline Phosphatase (ASP) Test · Complete Blood Count
Q. What conditions can cause high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in blood?
High levels of lactate dehydrogenase may occur in blood due to: · Hemolytic anemia · Pernicious or megaloblastic anemia · Infections like mononucleosis, meningitis, etc. · Sepsis · Pancreatitis · Damage and death of intestinal or lung tissues · Acute kidney diseases · Acute liver diseases · Muscle injury · Fractures in bones · Cancers like testicular cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, etc.
Q. When can false results appear in the Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Test?
Falsely elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase may occur in a number of conditions, including: · Temporarily due to strenuous physical exercise · Hemolysis of the blood sample due to improper storage and handling · Increased platelet count
Q. What are lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes?
Lactate dehydrogenase is found in five different forms or isoenzymes named LD-1 to LD-5. These isoenzymes are found in abundance in the different organs of the body as follows: · LD-1: heart, red blood cells, kidneys, germ cells (testes and ovaries) · LD-2: heart, red blood cells, kidneys · LD-3: lungs and other tissues · LD-4: white blood cells, lymph nodes, muscles, liver · LD-5: liver, skeletal muscle If the results of the total Lactate Dehydrogenase Test display elevated levels, tests for the different isoenzymes may be performed to indicate the exact location of the body where tissue damage has taken place.
Q. Why is the Lactate Dehydrogenase Test performed for other body fluids?
The lactate dehydrogenase enzyme is secreted out of the cells not only into the surrounding fluid called the serum, but also in the other body fluids like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lactate Dehydrogenase Test can also be performed on the other body fluids: · To evaluate the CSF for meningitis and distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis · To evaluate other body fluids such as the peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, etc. to determine conditions affecting them · To help determine whether fluid accumulation is due to injury and inflammation, or other reasons such as excess protein in blood
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About Gen X Diagnostics Pvt Ltd

Gen-X Diagnostics is a unit of ARA Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. founded by leading applied research scientist Dr. Rama Mukherjee. Gen-X specializes in the field of molecular diagnostics, focusing on the development of genetic, biological and molecular diagnostic services. It is one of the first of its kind R&D Company focusing on development of genetic, biological and molecular diagnostic services with an intention to assisting its global partners in shortening the cycle and lowering the cost of drug discovery and development by providing cost effective and efficient co-development and outlicencing solution. Gen X Diagnostics is a unique leading Molecular Diagnostics in India offering a wide range of tests for infectious diseases, transplantation medicine, prenatal diagnostics, cancer, genetic disorder, metabolic and hormonal disorders. Gen-X Diagnostics has started its diagnostics operation from Dec 2007. We do reflect a commitment to improving the lives through the delivery of innovative diagnosis and therapeutic products that enable and provide optimal care.

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