Thyroxine - Free
What is FT4?
Thyroxine (T4) is a hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland (small, butterfly-shaped gland located in front of the neck). The T4 hormone is essential for growth and metabolism. T4 circulates in the blood in two forms: free form (FT4) and bound form. Free Thyroxine (T4) Test measures the free form of thyroxine hormone in the blood.
Why is FT4 done?
To diagnose any suspected thyroid disease (Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism)
To monitor treatment in patients with thyroid diseases
What does FT4 Measure?
The thyroid gland secretes the following hormones:
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone secreted into the blood by the pituitary gland (a gland present in the brain) which tells your thyroid gland to make and release the thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) into your blood. The thyroid gland uses the iodine gained from food to make the thyroid hormones.
The thyroid hormones are essential for growth and metabolism. If the thyroid gland produces very high amounts of T3 and T4 hormones, you may experience symptoms like weight loss, rapid heartbeat, tremors, sweating, anxiety, increased sensitivity to heat, etc. This is known as hyperthyroidism.
The decreased production of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) results in hypothyroidism which may cause weight gain, fatigue, slow heart rate, increased sensitivity to cold, depression, dry and thin hair, etc.
There is a feedback system in the body to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the blood. When the levels of thyroid hormones decrease, the pituitary gland is stimulated to release TSH. High TSH, in turn, increases the release of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) from the thyroid gland and vice-versa.
T4 hormone constitutes about 90% of thyroid hormones and circulates in the blood in two forms:
1) Bound form - It is bound to the proteins present in the blood and this prevents it from entering the body tissues. The three main proteins in the blood that the T4 hormone is bound to are albumin, transthyretin and Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), also called Thyroid hormone binding globulin (THBG).
2) Free form - This is the active form which enters the body tissues where it's needed. Free Thyroxine (FT4) constitutes only 0.3% of the total T3 hormone.
Hence, the T4 hormone can be measured as Free T4 or Total T4. Total T4 includes both the bound and the free forms, circulating in the blood and can be affected by the amount of protein available in the blood to bind to them. Therefore, Thyroxine (T4) Free Test is a useful indicator of the T4 levels in the blood when binding proteins are increased or decreased.
Thyroxine (T4) Free Test is also done as a part of the Thyroid Profile Free Test which includes two more tests: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Triiodothyronine (T3) Total.
Interpreting FT4 results
11.0 - 32.0
6 days to 3 months
11.5 - 28.3
4 to 12 months
11.9 - 25.6
1 to 6 years
12.3 - 22.8
7 to 11 years
12.5 - 21.5
12 to 20 years
12.6 - 21.0
12.0 - 22.0
High values than normal reference range are seen in hyperthyroidism and patients with acute thyroiditis.
Low values than normal reference range are seen in hypothyroidism, myxedema, cretinism, chronic thyroiditis, and occasionally, subacute thyroiditis.