Test Detail
Overview
Interpreting Results
FAQ's
Tests Included

Content created by

Written by
Dr. Betina Chandolia
BDS, MDS - Oral Pathology and Microbiology
Reviewed by
Dr. Lalit Mohan Gupta
MBBS, MD - Microbiology
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Complete Haemogram

(Hmg)
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Hmg Test Includes 25 testsView All
Complete Haemogram
You need to provide
Blood
This test is for
Male, Female
Test Preparation
  1. No special preparation required

Overview


What is Hmg?

Complete hemogram includes a series of test which includes complete blood count (CBC, also known as a complete blood cell count) along with Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). CBC is a test that provides information about blood cells like Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC) and platelets. It is routinely performed to provide an overview of a patient's general health status. ESR is done to find out if any condition is causing inflammation in the body.

Why is Hmg done?


  • To monitor overall health as part of a routine check-up

  • To help detect a variety of disorders including infections, anemia, diseases related to the immune system, and blood cancers

  • To monitor an existing blood disorder

  • To monitor treatment that is known to affect blood cells such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy 

  • In case of signs and symptoms associated with temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, or rheumatoid arthritis


What does Hmg Measure?

The ESR depicts the rate at which red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle (sediment), in one hour, at the bottom of a tube that contains a blood sample. The test result is expressed in millimeters per hour (mm/hr).
In the presence of inflammation, the production of certain proteins mainly fibrinogen increases in blood. This high proportion of fibrinogen leads the red blood cells to form a stack (rouleaux formation) which settle quickly due to their high density.
The ESR test is a non-specific measure of inflammation. This is because other conditions other than inflammation can also affect ESR. Although, a high ESR can detect the presence of inflammation, it cannot provide any information regarding the cause and site of inflammation. Hence, an ESR test is done along with other tests.
Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma (yellowish colored liquid). These blood cells include red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes), and platelets (also called thrombocytes).


Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant blood cells. RBCs contain hemoglobin which helps in the transport of oxygen to the tissues. RBC count is a measurement of the number of RBCs in a given volume of blood. 


Packed Cell Volume (PCV) or Hematocrit (Hct) is a measurement of the blood volume occupied by RBCs. It is expressed in percentage.


White blood cells (WBCs) are the main components of the immune system. They protect the body from various infections and cancers. Total Leucocyte count (TLC) is a measurement of the total number of leucocytes (WBCs) in a given volume of blood. 


There are five types of WBCs:

  1. Neutrophils

  2. Basophils

  3. Eosinophils

  4. Lymphocytes

  5. Monocytes


Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC) determines the percentage of different types of WBCs.

Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils are called Granulocytes because of the presence of granules inside these cells.


Absolute count of different types of WBCs is the measurement of their absolute numbers in the given volume of blood.


In addition to counting, measuring, and analyzing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, this test also measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood and within each red blood cell.


Platelet count - Platelets (also called thrombocytes) are disc-shaped cell fragments without a nucleus that help in blood clotting. Platelet count is a measurement of the number of platelets in a given volume of blood. 


Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is a measurement of the average size of platelets.


Hemoglobin (Hb) -  Hemoglobin (Hb) is a protein found in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues. It transports oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, and then carry the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and where it is again exchanged for oxygen. 


Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) is the average volume of a red blood cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin present in the average red cell.


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of red cells.


Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is a measurement of the variability of red blood cell size and shape. 



Complete blood count (CBC) includes the following tests:


  • Packed Cell Volume

  • Hemoglobin

  • Platelet Count

  • Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC)

  • Differential Eosinophil Count

  • Differential Neutrophil Count

    -    Differential Monocyte Count

      -    Differential Granulocyte Count

                             -     Differential Lymphocyte Count

                             -     Differential Basophil Count

  • Absolute Monocyte Counts

  • Red Blood Cell Count

  • RDW SD (Red blood cell distribution width)

  • Total Leucocyte Count

  • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

  • Mean Platelet Volume

  • Absolute Leucocyte Count

  •  Absolute Eosinophil Count

  •  Absolute Lymphocyte Count

  •  Absolute Basophil Count

  •  Absolute Granulocyte Count

  •  Absolute Monocyte Count

  •  Absolute Neutrophil Count

The ESR depicts the rate at which red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle (sediment), in one hour, at the bottom of a tube that contains a blood sample. The test result is expressed in millimeters per hour (mm/hr).

In the presence of inflammation, the production of certain proteins mainly fibrinogen increases in blood. This high proportion of fibrinogen leads the red blood cells to form a stack (rouleaux formation) which settle quickly due to their high density.
The ESR test is a non-specific measure of inflammation. This is because other conditions other than inflammation can also affect ESR. Although, a high ESR can detect the presence of inflammation, it cannot provide any information regarding the cause and site of inflammation. Hence, an ESR test is done along with other tests.


Interpreting Hmg results


Interpretations


Hematocrit (Hct)


40-52% (Male)



37-46% (Female)



31-43% (Child)


Hemoglobin (Hgb)



13.2-16.2 gm/dL (Male)



12.0-15.2 gm/dL (Female)

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)


4.3-6.2x106/µL (Male)



3.8-5.5x106/µL (Female)



3.8-5.5x106/µL (Infant/Child)


White Blood Cell Count (WBC)



4.1-10.9x103/µL





DLC



Neutrophils

35-80%



Lymphocytes 

20-50%


Monocytes 

2-12%


Eosinophils 

0-7%


Basophils 

0-2%




Platelet Count (Plt)


140-450x103/µL







Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)


Standard Deviation (SD)

35-47 fL

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)


82-102 fL (Male)



78-101 fL (Female)


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)                           


Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)



27-34 pg



31-35 gm/dL



  Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)                           6.0-9.5 fL

 

Erythrocyte sedimentation Rate      

 The normal reference range for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is:

 

Men

0-15 millimetres per hour (mm/hr), or 0-20 mm/hr for men older than 50

Women

0-20 mm/hr, or 0-30 mm/hr for women older than 50

Children

0-10 mm/hr

Newborns

0-2 mm/hr



Answers to Patient Concerns & Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Hmg


Frequently Asked Questions about Complete Haemogram

Q. What are the symptoms of Anemia?
Many people having anemia are unaware of it and symptoms can be minor. The symptoms can be related to an underlying cause or the anemia itself. The symptoms of anemia usually include Pale skin, Weakness, Shortness of breath, Fainting, Palpitations, Chest pain and Restless legs syndrome. On examination, the signs that were experienced indicated pallor (pale skin, lining mucosa, conjunctiva and nail beds), but this is not a reliable sign.
Q. What are the causes of Anemia?
Anemia can be caused by impaired red blood cell (RBC) production, increased RBC destruction (hemolytic anemias), blood loss, and fluid overload (hypervolemia).
Q. Is there any preparation required before the test?
Inform the doctor about the medications you may be taking. No other specific preparations are usually required before this test.
Q. How is the blood sample taken?
The healthcare provider takes a blood sample from the arm. The site from where the blood is to be withdrawn is cleaned with a swab of rubbing alcohol. This is then followed by inserting a small needle which has a tube attached to it for collecting blood. Once the sufficient blood for analysis is withdrawn, the needle is removed. The site is then covered with a gauze pad.
Q. Is there any risk associated with the withdrawal of blood sample procedure?
As such there is no risk but in few cases, bruising, bleeding, and infection at the puncture site can be seen. In very few cases, there can be swelling of the vein after the blood is withdrawn.
Q. What do abnormal results of complete blood count (CBC) test indicate?
The abnormal CBC test results may be interpreted as:- Decreased level of hemoglobin suggests anemia while increased levels are seen in polycythemia (a disorder in which your body makes too many red blood cells). Various causes of anemia are iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia, and hemolytic anemia. High WBC count is associated with infections, inflammatory disorders, leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders. Whereas, low levels may be seen in aplastic anemia, bone marrow disorders, and autoimmune conditions High neutrophil count (neutrophilia) can be seen in acute bacterial infections, inflammation, burns. Whereas, lower values (neutropenia) may be seen in aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorders, drug reactions, or chemotherapy. High lymphocyte count (lymphocytosis) may be seen in acute viral infections, tuberculosis, and lymphocytic leukemia. Whereas, lower values (lymphopenia) may be seen in bone marrow damage, aplastic anemia, and autoimmune disorders. High monocyte count (monocytosis) may be seen in chronic infections like tuberculosis, bacterial endocarditis, collagen vascular disorders, inflammatory bowel diseases. Whereas, lower values may be seen in bone marrow damage. High eosinophil count (eosinophilia) can be seen in asthma, allergies, drug reactions, parasitic infections. Whereas, lower levels are rare and medically insignificant. High basophil count (basophilia) may be seen in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), while lower levels are medically insignificant. Low platelet counts also called as thrombocytopenia are associated with viral infections like dengue fever, bleeding, or platelet disorders. Increased MCV can indicate anemia due to Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency and decreased MCV is seen in iron deficiency anemia. Hematocrit lower than normal can indicate iron deficiency, while a high level can occur in dehydration (loss of water) or other conditions. Diet, medications, physical activity level, a woman's menstrual cycle, and other considerations can affect the test results.
Q. What are the causes of inflammation?
Inflammation can be for short or long term. Various conditions can cause inflammation such as: Arthritis, Infections, Inflammatory bowel disease and Autoimmune disease such as Lupus
Q. What do abnormal results of ESR means?
High ESR can be seen in Inflammatory diseases such as Arthritis (inflammation of joints) and vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels), Infection, such as pneumonia, pelvic inflammatory disease, appendicitis, skin infection, bone infection, and heart valve infection, Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, Chronic kidney disease, Viral infections, Pregnancy and Cancer, such as lymphoma or multiple myeloma Low ESR can be seen in Congestive heart failure, Polycythemia, Sickle cell disease, Severe liver disease and Hypofibrinogenemia
+ more

Tests Included (25 tests)


  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
  • Complete Blood Count(includes 24 tests)

    Differential leucocyte Count (includes 6 tests)

    Hemoglobin

    Absolute Monocyte Counts

    Red Blood Cell Count

    RDW SD

    Platelet Count

    Total Leucocyte Count

    Packed Cell Volume

    Red Cell Distribution Width

    Mean Corpuscular Volume

    Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

    Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration

    Mean Platelet Volume

    Absolute Leucocyte Count (includes 6 tests)


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