Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC
What is Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC?
Hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis is used to identify the different types of hemoglobin present in the blood. This includes hemoglobin A1 (HbA1), hemoglobin A2 (HbA2), hemoglobin F (HbF; fetal hemoglobin), hemoglobin C (HbC), and hemoglobin S (HbS). It also detects abnormal hemoglobins which may abrupt the oxygen flow. This test is used as the first step in the screening test.
Why is Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC done?
As a part of a routine checkup
To diagnose blood disorders
To monitor the treatment in patients having abnormal hemoglobin
As a screening test for genetic conditions
What does Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC Measure?
Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC test measures and identifies different types of hemoglobin in the blood. A human body contains various types of hemoglobin in their blood. With age, the percentage of hemoglobin present in the body changes. Hemoglobin is the protein which is present inside the red blood cells. Its function is to transport oxygen to the tissues and organs of the body.
When there is a change in DNA sequence commonly called a mutation, the production of hemoglobin gets affected. These type of changes cause abnormality in hemoglobin and the normal working of healthy hemoglobin gets defected. This will result in a decreased amount of required oxygen transported to tissues and organs.
The different types of hemoglobin include:
Hemoglobin F - Fetal hemoglobin
Hemoglobin A - Adult hemoglobin
Hemoglobin F is found in growing fetuses and newborns. It is soon replaced with hemoglobin A after birth. Hemoglobin A is found in children and adults. It is the most common type of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin C, D, E, M, and S are rare types of abnormal hemoglobin which occur due to genetic mutations.
Interpreting Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis by HPLC results
60 to 80%
1 to 2%
Type of Hemoglobin
95% - 98%
2% - 3%
1% - 2%
All the results should be carefully analyzed and interpreted in correlation with the patient's signs and symptoms and other laboratory findings.
Presence of high level of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) on HPLC indicates either sickle cell trait or sickle cell anemia
Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) on HPLC is associated with beta-thalassemia major. Sometimes, it can also be seen in sickle cell anemia
High HbA2 levels are mostly associated with beta thalassemia minor or trait. Recent studies say that HbA2 level between 4% and 9% indicates beta thalassemia trait
Other less common hemoglobins which can be detected are hemoglobin C, D, E, M, etc.